Developer Opportunities with CLEAR WiMAX 4G: Clearwire’s initiative for apps development for WiMax systems

IEEE ComSoc SCV February 10th, 2010 Meeting Report

“Developer Opportunities with CLEAR WiMAX 4G”

This very informative and exciting meeting drew a large audience of over 85 attendees. Those present heard directly from Clearwire’s about their Silicon Valley Innovation Network (based on IEEE 801.16e-2005/Mobile WiMAX) and tools that are being made available for CLEAR 4G applications developers. Representing Clearwire were Allen Flanagan, Manager, Silicon Valley Innovation Network, and David Rees, Manager, Developer and Partner Enablement. The event featured excellent presentation by both speakers followed by Q&A as well as a panel discussion where meeting attendees were able to ask questions not already covered in the talks. The presentations and subsequent Q&A were moderated by Sameer Herlekar, ComSoc SCV Technical Activities Director, while the panel discussion was chaired by Alan Weissberger, ComSoc SCV Chairman.

Presentation Highlights:

David Rees, in his talk on “Application Developer Enablement,” first provided some background on Clearwire and its network.  Clearwire was said to be a broadband wireless network provider currently operating in 25 markets and reaching 30 million people with the potential to cover 80 markets and reaching 120 million people by the end of 2010. (Note that “people” here refers to the total populace in these markets, not the actual number of Clearwire customers.) Dave told us that Clearwire’s “4G” WiMax network (following the IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard) operates nationwide in the 2.5 GHz spectral band with an average of 150 MHz spectrum available per market. The principal funding sources for Clearwire’s 4G network deployment plans include Sprint, Comcast, Intel, Time Warner, Google and Bright House Networks. In fact, Clearwire received over $3.2 billion in funding and resources from these sources in 2008 alone. Additionally, the talk elaborated on the benefits of the WiMax-based 4G network over the contemporary 3G networks based on EV-DO and HSPA in terms of higher data rates and spectrum capacities, stronger device mobility support, and amenability for low-cost deployment via an all-IP network. Specifically, based on results from drive-testing their network in Portland, OR over a 17-mile distance at an average speed of 35mph and a top speed of 55mph, Clearwire claims that their network’s performance is an order of magnitude superior to the 3G networks over the same route in terms of peak and mean data rates as well as network latency. Clearwire’s teams attained a peak data rate of 19 Mbps, a mean data rate of 6.5 Mbps and a mean latency of 83 ms during the drive testing.

Mr. Rees then shifted to Clearwire’s plans for Application Developer Enablement, i.e., the platform which enables (or, to be precise, which Clearwire seeks to enable) application developers and OEMs devise applications and services which leverage the enhanced speed and capacities of the 4G network. David Rees then explained Clearwire’s philosophy of an “open network for open devices”, where any WiMax-enabled device including those based in MIDs, camcorders, netbooks and smartphones will be able to access the 4G WiMax network. In fact, the devices do not even have to be necessarily provided by the carriers. However, they will need to be certified by the WiMax forum before they can be considered admissible on Clearwire’s 4G network.

The presentation then explained how, in order to support the “open network for open devices” paradigm and the mobile internet applications operating thereupon, appropriate application program interfaces (APIs) need to be made available to developers and service providers. These APIs need to be able to access the mobile device’s location information as well as be aware of the network itself, thereby providing a superior quality of experience to the end-user. Clearwire seeks to provide location information via APIs that employ a client/server service whereby applications can determine their own locations (“where am I?”), a server/server service which enables geo-fencing or tracking (“where are they?”), enabling location in browsers themselves including Chrome, Firefox and IE, and also by working with existing location providers to use WiMax for reporting location information. For example, a lightweight JSON/HTTP service allows client applications including browsers to query their locations and obtain their latitude/longitude information from the server. Clearwire is also working on adding direct support for Google Gears, Firefox and other browsers. Similarly, the server/server service employs the device’s IP address or MAC address to determine the device’s location. Network-awareness will be provided via Session Information and includes enhanced location awareness via triangulation, radio-signal quality information, as well as diagnostics collection and reporting such as round-trip time to each neighbor (future enhancement) and neighboring sector information (also a future enhancement). The session information is sought to be provided by a single, or common API, the so-called CAPI, which Clearwire is currently standardizing and promoting. As a matter of fact, CAPI 1.2.1 has already been implemented on a variety of chipsets including Intel’s WiMax-enabled laptops. Moreover, CAPI 2.0, which is currently being standardized, will (when available commercially) include such features as neighboring sector information, handoff notification and a list of applications requesting a particular quality of service (QoS).

Suggesting that Clearwire views mobile video as a major application for the 4G network-enabled mobile internet, the talk elaborated on Clearwire’s efforts to ensure a high-quality end-user experience by supporting in-network video optimization as well as session information provision to video clients, video servers and video service providers to help them optimize their transmission/reception performances.

The final part of the Developer Enablement portion of the presentation focused on QoS and its current status vis-à-vis Clearwire’s 4G network deployments. The talk explained that traffic streams such as video are specified to have a particular service-level in terms of throughput, latency (network delay) and jitter (delay variation). The network then identifies these streams and attempts to provide the desired service-level to each stream with a goal of minimizing the likelihood of network congestion while concurrently supporting different service-levels. At this time, while QoS has been implemented in Clearwire’s network, it will be offered to users only after Clearwire concludes its ongoing open-internet NPRM talks with the FCC and it’s (Clearwire’s) partners on when QoS-on-demand should be formally deployed. Additionally, Clearwire is yet to finalize its strategy with respect to load balancing (balancing QoS demands from a plurality of end-users), as well as network management once full QoS-on-demand becomes available, possibly in the third quarter of this year.

The Developer Resources section of the talk was presented by Allen Flanagan, where the 4G WiMax Innovation Network, also known as CLEAR was explained in detail. According to the presentation, CLEAR is a pre-commercial network deployed in parts of Silicon Valley including Palo Alto and Menlo Park, Mountain View and Santa Clara for testing mobile device-based applications. Registered service, application and content developers may make use of this service for free for the duration of the program. Noting that the CLEAR program encourages app developers to create applications which take advantage of the mobility aspect of the device, the talk pointed out that the Innovation Network is, however, not a testbed for hardware nor is it intended for end-users. When invited to suggest an example app for the 4G Innovators Network, Allen Flanagan outlined an application for public safety teams which could perform voice recognition and possibly translation. Such an app could be very useful for disaster-hit areas where local first-responders need to communicate with emergency workers who may not speak the native language. The talk concluded with an invitation to the audience members to receive free passes to the 4G WiMax Developer Workshop to be held in Santa Clara Convention Center on March 2nd of this year.

Panel Session:

The panel session, moderated by Alan Weissberger, addressed a number of issues which were raised even during the Q&A sessions following the speaker presentations. Both the Clearwire reps provided a wide-range of information on device and app certification, locations (stores) where the apps may be obtained, as well as the all-important question of QoS. During the panel discussion, audience members came to learn that:

There will be no special app store for CLEAR-developed applications. Clearwire welcomes apps purchased through stores belonging to their partners like Intel, Google, Apple and Palm.

Clearwire certifies devices approved by the WiMax forum and will certify only those apps which are provided by Clearwire; any other developed apps will not be certified by them.

Clearwire’s handheld WiMax device will become available later this year.

Network usage and available capacity will be monitored over time and adjustment of capacity will be made based on backhaul traffic statistics. While real-time capacity adjustments are not possible, Clearwire will leverage the 150 MHz of available spectrum to help meet any projected increase in user demand for capacity.

When pressed on whether Clearwire’s business model takes into account a point of network failure due to conflicting user demands for QoS, or whether Clearwire can guarantee that a fixed QoS will be supported by their network for a (statistical) percentage of communicating devices for a (statistical) fraction of the time, the Clearwire reps acknowledged that the QoS-on-demand issue is a major challenge to network planners and that they will relay the question to the their engineering teams as developer feedback.

When asked whether Clearwire’s future WiMAX enabled phone would use mobile VoIP or cellular voice, Clearwire’s Allen Flanagan understandably refused to answer as the product has not been officially announced. For speculation on what type of voice would be used on WiMAX handsets, please see:


Analysis and Opinion:

The 4G WiMax network being deployed by Clearwire as a means to enable the mobile internet is certainly a very strong response to the tremendous attention being accorded to LTE in recent months. Additionally, the 4G Innovation Network program, a.k.a. CLEAR is a clever approach to attract app and content developers by providing them with free access to the WiMax network prior to any commercial deployments. That the CLEAR program targets Silicon Valley is not surprising either, given the vast number of hi-tech innovations which have been born in the valley. With regard to air interfaces, Clearwire’s drive-testing results showed that the OFDM-based WiMax combined with 150 MHz of available spectrum can achieve significant mobility support for major bandwidth-hungry applications such as mobile video (we note, however, that Clearwire’s drive-testing was undertaken at off-peak hours to minimize any loading effects).

Many industry experts predict that mobile video is the killer application for the true mobile internet. This viewpoint does not seem to have been lost on Clearwire, given their emphasis on supporting mobile video on their 4G network. In order to support apps which feature mobile video as well as other applications, Clearwire will provide APIs which support RF awareness, location awareness and network awareness. On the crucial issue of QoS, Clearwire has enabled QoS in it’s networks even though it is not yet available to end-users, pending talks between Clearwire, it’s partners and the FCC.

The solid attendance for this meeting and the number and variety of questions raised by the attendees points to great enthusiasm among potential app and content developers to leverage the promise of Clearwire’s 4G network.

Besides the current unavailability of QoS guarantees to support applications like mobile video, the network’s ability to support multiple bandwidth-hungry applications from multiple users (numbering in the hundreds of thousands in some markets) is still an open question which Clearwire’s engineering teams will no doubt be actively engaged in to answer. However, Clearwire has undertaken notable steps in its quest to acquire a lion’s share of the mobile internet network operator market including enticing potential app and content developers and service providers to develop a plethora of mobile apps via the CLEAR program. It is now up to developers to unleash their creativity and devise apps which are innovative, timely and which truly provide end-users with a superior quality of experience on their mobile devices. Simultaneously, Clearwire needs to live up to it’s promise of providing a network which supports high mobility and highly differentiated network services including QoS-on-demand for an overall customer base which potentially numbers in the millions.


Here are a few links to articles, written by Alan Weissberger, which describe Clearwire’s Innovation Network and Developers program:

GSA Silicon Series Seminar: New Markets, New Economics, Feb 10, 2010 Santa Clara, CA

This very informative, analyst – only panel discussion assessed the outlook for new and growing markets throughout the semiconductor industry. While several markets were covered, this summary will focus exclusively on the hot communications related markets and products. During the meeting, analysts from FBR Capital Markets, iSuppli, Databeans and Gartner shared their perspectives and predictions on what’s hot and why in several markets of interest to communications and network practitioners.

Craig Berger of FBR Capital Markets singled out smart phones and Set Top Boxes (STBs) as key semiconductor industry drivers. He said that China’s 3G infrastructure build-outs would have ripple effects across the industry and accelerate in late 2010. China is expected to spend over $60B in 3G related telecom equipment over the next two years. That’s certainly impressive! Craig opined that he expected India to "ramp up" 3G network production, but didn’t say when (India’s 3G licensed spectrum auctions have been postponed for well over one year now). In addition to 3G, Mr. Berger commented that wireless interfaces, such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and GPS, were propogating much more broadly into hand held devices that didn’t have much or any IC content previously.

FBR see a continued proliferation of smartphones, with +15% growth in 2009 and +25% expected in 2010. Handset chip content is actually increasing versus recent years. Other gadgets are expected to do well – Tablets, eBook readers, and MIDs. Chip makers that will benefit from this advanced wireless handheld trend are Qualcomm, Infineon, Broadcom, Marvell, Nvidia, Intel, and STMicro, according to Craig.

Distributed computing is another trend to watch. As broadband becomes faster and increasingly available, PCs do not need to have large amounts of on board storage, expensive operating systems and processors. Instead, they can be ‘dumb terminals‘ that just interface to Internet or cloud computing based servers.

Success is created when products are specifically designed to address a particular market niche. For example, Bluetooth is really 20 different sub-markets, depending on application and usage models. Broadcom has done paricularly well in these sub markets by offering a wide variety of components and combo chips that address the different requirements of the sub markets.

To read the rest of this article go to:

Femtocells & Relays in Advanced Wireless Networks

With the huge growth of mobile phones complementing with a revolution wireless network technologies there has been a huge change in the consumer’s lifestyle and dependence on mobile phones. With the emergence of smart phones (mobile web) consumers are replacing not only their fixed lines but have started downsizing the number of personal computers in home. But they have far way to go as this demographic for this adoption is quite limited due to various factors. Fundamentally, consumers want great voice quality, reliable service, and low prices. But today’s mobile phone networks often provide poor indoor coverage and expensive per-minute pricing. In fact, with the continued progress in broadband VoIP offerings such as Vonage and Skype, wireless operators are at a serious disadvantage in the home.
Hence the wireless operators are looking to enhance their macro-cell coverage with the help of micro-cell coverages(indoor) deploying small base stations such as Femtocells or with the help of Relay technology.These miniature base stations are the size of a DSL router or cable modem and provide indoor wireless coverage to mobile phones using existing broadband Internet connections.
Pointing out some key advantages of Femtocells and Relays we will then focus on their adoption in advanced wireless networks(WiMAX and LTE)
Technical Advantages:
Low Cost: The Business Model would be initially by offering Femtos as a consumer purchase through mobile operators
Low Power: around 8mW- 120 mW lower than Wi-Fi APs.
Easy to Use: Plug-and-Play easily installed by consumers themselves
Compatibility & Interoperability: Compatibility with UMTS,EVDO standards and WiMAX,UMB & LTE standards
Deployment: In Wireless Operator owned licensed spectrum unlike WiFi
Broadband ocnnected:Femto cells utilize Internet protocol (IP) and flat base station architectures, and will connect to mobile operator networks via a wired broadband Internet service such as DSL, cable, or fiber optics.
With the above set up Femtocells solves following existing problems and extends the wireless coverage reach enabling newer applications and services
Customer’s point of view:
Increased Indoor Coverage: Coverage radius is 40m – 600m in most homes providing full signal throughout the household
Load sharing: Unlike in macro cells which supports hundreds of users, Femtos will support 5-7 users simultaneously  enabling lesser contention in accessing medium delivering higher data rates/user.
Better Voice Quality: As the users will be in the coverage envelope and closer to Femtos, they will definitely be supported with a better voice and sound quality with fewer dropped calls
Better Data/Multimedia Experience: It will deliver better and higher data performance with streaming musics, downloads and web browsing with lesser interruptions and loss of connections compared to a macro-cell  environment
Wireless Operator’s point of view:
Lower CAPEX: Increased usage of femtocells will cut down huge capital costs on macro cell equipments & deployments. This includes costs savings in site acquisitions, site equipments, site connections with the switching centers.
Increased network capacity: Increased usage of femtocells will reduce stress on macro cells increasing overall capacity of mobile operators
Lower OPEX: With lesser macro cell sites it reduces the overall site maintenance, equipment maintenance and backhaul costs.
Newer Revenue Opportunities: With provision of excellent indoor coverage and superior user experience with voice and multimedia data services operators has an opportunity of raising its ARPU with more additions to family plans
Reduced Churn: Due to improved coverage, user multimedia experience and fewer dropped calls, will lead to a significant reduction in customer churn
Technical hurdles:
Spectrum: Femtocells works on licensed spectrum and as the spectrum is the most expensive resource it will be a major technical hurdle for the wireless operator for frequency planning.
RF Coverage Optimization: Radio tuning and optimization for RF coverage in macro cells is manually done by technicians which is now not possible at each femtocell level, henceforth self optimization and tuning over time according to the indoor coverage map has to be done either automatically or remotely which is a technical challenge.
RF Interference: Femtocells might be prone to femto-macro interference and also femto-femto interference in highly dense macro or micro environments which might affect the user experience.
Automatic System Selection: When an authorized user of a femto cell moves in or out of the coverage of the femto cell – and is not on an active call – the handset must correctly select the system to operate on. In particular, when a user moves from the macro cell into femto cell coverage, the handset must automatically select the femto cell, and visa versa
Handoffs: When an authorized user of a femto cell moves in or out of coverage of the femto cell – and is on an active call – the handset must correctly hand off between the macro cell and femto cell networks. Such handoffs are especially critical when a user loses the coverage of a network that is currently serving it, as in the case of a user leaving the house where a femto cell is located
Security & Scalability: A femto cell must identify and authenticate itself to the operator’s network as being valid. With millions of femto cells deployed in a network, operators will require large scale security gateways at the edge of their core networks to handle millions of femto cell-originated IPsec tunnels
Femto Management: Activation on purchase and plug and play by end user is an important step and with a proper access control management allowing end-user to add/delete active device connections in the household. In addition, operators must have management systems that give first-level support technicians full visibility into the operation of the femto cell and its surrounding RF environment.
Relay transmission can be seen as a kind of collaborative communications, in which a relay station (RS) helps to forward user information from neighboring user equipment (UE)/mobile station (MS) to a local eNode-B (eNB)/base station (BS). In doing this, an RS can effectively extend the signal and service coverage of an eNB and enhance the overall throughput performance of a wireless communication system. The performance of relay transmissions is greatly affected by the collaborative strategy, which includes the selection of relay types and relay partners (i.e., to decide when, how, and with whom to collaborate).
Relays that receive and retransmit the signals between base stations and mobiles can be used to effectively  increase throughput extend coverage of cellular networks. Infrastucture relays do not need wired connection to network thereby offering savings in operators’ backhaul costs. Mobile relays can be used to build local area networks between mobile users under the umbrella of the wide area cellular networks
Increased Coverage: With multi-hop relays the macro cell coverage can be expanded to the places where the base station cannot reach.
Increased Capacity: It creates hotspot solutions with reduced interference to increase the overall capacity of the system
Lower CAPEX & OPEX: Relays extending the coverage eliminates the need of additional base stations and corresponding backhaul lines saving wireless operators deployment costs and corresponding maintenance costs. The relays can be user owned relays provided by operators and can be mounted on roof tops or indoors.
Better Broadband Experience: Higher data rates are therefore now available as users are close to the mini RF access point
Reduced Transmission power: With Relays deployed there is a considerable reduction in transmission power reducing co-channel interference and increased capacity
Faster Network rollout: The deployment of relays is simple and quickens the network rollout process with a higher level of outdoor to indoor service and leading to use of macrodiversity increasing coverage quality with lesser fading and stronger signal levels
As a hot research topic with great application potential, relay technologies have been actively studied and considered in the standardization process of next-generation mobile communication systems, such as 3GPP LTE-Advanced
and IEEE 802.16j (multihop relays for WiMAX standards).
Relay Types

Two types of RSs have been defined in 3GPP LTE-Advanced and 802.16j standards, Type-I and Type-II in  3GPP LTE-Advanced, and non-transparency and transparency in IEEE 802.16j.
Specifically, a Type-I (or non-transparency) RS can help a remote UE unit, which is located far away from an eNB (or
a BS), to access the eNB. So a Type-I RS needs to transmit the common reference signal and the control information for the eNB, and its main objective is to extend signal and service coverage.Type-I RSs mainly perform IP packet forwarding in the network layer (layer 3) and can make some contributions to the overall system capacity by enabling communication services and data transmissions for remote UE units.
On the other hand, a Type-II (or transparency) RS can help a local UE unit, which is located within the coverage of an eNB (or a BS) and has a direct communication link with the eNB, to improve its service quality and link capacity. So a Type-II RS does not transmit the common reference signal or the control information, and its main objective is to increase the overall system capacity by achieving multipath diversity and transmission gains for local UE units.
Pairing Schemes for Relay Selection
One of the key challenges is to select and pair nearby RSs and UE units to achieve the relay/cooperative gain. The selection of relay partners (i.e., with whom to collaborate) is a key element for the success of the overall collaborative strategy. Practically, it is very important to develop effective pairing schemes to select appropriate RSs and UE units to collaborate in relay transmissions, thus improving throughput and coverage performance for future relay-enabled mobile communication networks.
This pairing procedure can be executed in either a centralized or distributed manner. In a centralized pairing scheme, an eNB will serve as a control node to collect the required channel and location information from all the RSs and UE units in its vicinity, and then make pairing decisions for all of them. On the contrary, in a distributed pairing scheme, each RS selects an appropriate UE unit in its neighborhood by using local channel information and a contention-based medium access control (MAC) mechanism. Generally speaking, centralized schemes require more signaling overhead, but can achieve better performance
Relay Transmission Schemes
Many relay transmission schemes have been proposed to establish two-hop communication between an eNB and a UE unit through an RS
Amplify and Forward — An RS receives the signal from the eNB (or UE) at the first phase. It amplifies this received signal and forwards it to the UE (or eNB) at the second phase. This Amplify and Forward (AF) scheme is very simple and has very short delay, but it also amplifies noise.
Selective Decode and Forward — An RS decodes (channel decoding) the received signal from the eNB (UE) at the first phase. If the decoded data is correct using cyclic redundancy check (CRC), the RS will perform channel coding and forward the new signal to the UE (eNB) at the second phase. This DCF scheme can effectively avoid error propagation through the RS, but the processing delay is quite long.
Demodulation and Forward — An RS demodulates the received signal from the eNB (UE) and makes a hard decision at the first phase (without decoding the received signal). It modulates and forwards the new signal to the UE (eNB) at the second phase. This Demodulation and Forward (DMF) scheme has the advantages of simple operation and low processing delay, but it cannot avoid error propagation due to the hard decisions made at the symbol level in phase one.
Comparison between 3GPP LTE Advanced and IEEE 802.16j RSs
Below shows comparison between Type I(3GPP- LTE Advanced) and Non-Transparency(IEEE -802.16j) RSs
Technical Issues
Practical issues of cooperative schemes like signaling between relays and different propagation delays due to different locations of relays are  often overlooked.  If  the difference in time of arrival between the direct path from source to destination and the paths source-relay-destination is constrained then relays must locate inside the ellipsoid as depicted below. Thus,  in practice, such a cooperative system shoiuld be a narrow band one, or guard interval between transmitted symbols should be used to avoid intersymbol interference due to relays.
In band relays consume radio resources and Out of band relays need multiple transceivers.
– Neil Shah
  M.S Telecommunications & Business


Mobile Packet Core + BWA India talks and panel discussions report, IEEE ComSoc SCV chapter Jan 13, 2010 meeting


IEEE ComSoc SCV chapter meeting held on January 13, 2010 offered two hot topics of interest to attendees: the Mobile Packet Core (MPC) for 3G and 4G wireless networks and the outlook for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) in India.  There were two presentations followed by a panel session which covered both the mobile packet core and BWA in India. This IEEE ComSoc SCV chapter meeting was chaired by Sameer Herlekar, ComSoc SCV Technical Activities Director. The meeting was well-attended, with the 72 people in attendance receiving the speakers’ presentations and panelists’ views with enthusiasm and often engaging the panelists in a lively debate on the issues involving MPC and BWA India.

Jay Iyer, Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems and Eric Andrews, VP of Product Management for WiChorus/Tellabs Company (who replaced Rehan Jalil, Senior Vice President, Mobile Internet, Tellabs) were the speakers who presented their respective companies’ perspectives on MPC and later participated in the panel discussion on the same subject. They were joined on the panel discussion by Arpit Joshipura, Vice-President, Strategy & Market Development, at Ericsson Silicon Valley who articulated Ericsson’s views on MPC as well as provided his views on BWA in India.

Presentation Highlights

 Presenting the first talk of the evening titled “The Mobile Internet Edge”, Jay Iyer elaborated on how intelligent networking built on an all-IP network foundation can help mobile broadband service providers monetize their investments while, at the same time, deliver a high quality of mobile experience to their subscribers. The user (subscribers’) experience will be marked by a rich suite of services including mobile video, enhanced voice and messaging, cloud-based services, other personalized services and featuring seamless interoperability over an array of devices. The talk also addressed how Cisco’s all-IP next generation network (NGN) architecture, named IP NGN 2.0 enables the ubiquity of these services. Noting that the mobile internet data traffic is projected to grow sixty-six fold by 2013-14, the presentation asserted that 64% of the mobile internet traffic by 2013 will be composed of mobile video, with speed of services and quality of service the key to user satisfaction and operator revenue generation. Additionally, the talk described the business models for new markets and services including collaboration cloud services and machine to machine (M2M) application services.


The second presentation of the evening, by Eric Andrews, was titled “Mobile Packet Core Trends” and focused on smart 4G packet cores for the mobile Internet. The talk observed that mobile operators the world-over are facing a severe shortfall of revenue following their introduction of mobile data services such as HSPA, in spite of actual mobile data traffic seeing an exponential increase over the same period. However, the talk also noted that the 103 million HSPA subscribers (as of Q4 2008) represented only 2% of the total mobile service subscribers. In order to meet this explosive mobile Internet data traffic growth, the mobile packet cores form a crucial network component within the new flat all-IP network architecture. Furthermore, the talk explained why smart 4G packet cores are well-positioned to not only handle the exponential volumes of data traffic (thereby enhancing the mobile subscribers’ quality of experience), but also enable network optimization and content monetization for the service operators’ benefit. Content and application awareness at the network, geographic and user levels, and a QoS guarantee enforced on identified content define the smart quality of these 4G packet cores. Additionally, the presentation elaborated on how a distributed core network architecture with internet offload at the network edge results in significant OPEX and CAPEX savings to the service operators while causing minimal operational impact on the network itself..

Panel Discussion

The three panelists concurred that the mobile Internet itself is the killer application for wireless communications, and that serious efforts need to be made towards extending the internet to help meet growing user demand for the mobile internet. Furthermore, the panelists asserted that the mobile packet core, in conjunction with either WiMax or LTE as the radio access technology is an ideal means to handle the exponentially-large volumes of data traffic expected from the mobile internet users. Eric Andrews noted that mobile users are demanding ever-increasing bandwidth for their mobile device applications and that the available bandwidth is never enough. This has been particularly true for the current state of the mobile internet, where the amount of bandwidth available to users has been far below the user’s expectations. A controversy erupted between a few of the audience members and the panelists on the question of whether off-portal services were threatening the traditional mobile operator business model and the walled-garden services. The audience members expressed their view that mobile operators have been restricting subscribers from accessing the services which they (subscribers) truly want while the panelists responded by stating their own case from the business angle.

The subject of BWA in India was then introduced by the panel moderator, Sameer Herlekar, who proffered his views on the topic, and was followed by each of the panelists who provided their own perspectives. Sameer Herlekar observed that the Indian government has initiated the BWA project in an effort to connect people in the rural areas of India to the Internet by leveraging wireless communication via WiMax as the transmission medium. This approach was mainly due to the inadequate reach of copper phone lines to the underdeveloped and remote parts of India. The three panelists observed that India is the single-largest WiMax market in the world and therefore offers mobile operators an invaluable business opportunity. However, according to Arpit Joshipura, the BWA in India will have to be deployed in the so-called metro (urban) areas first, and consolidation will need to take place among the operators before the rural markets can be tapped profitably. The panel and moderator also noted that bureaucratic hurdles are a serious impediment to the deployment of BWA in India, including the spectrum auction date which is still undecided despite a delay of over one year.


The opening of the airwaves to the Internet by mobile broadband is expected to spawn a host of new applications, user interfaces, services and technologies geared for mobile Internet subscribers. These applications and technologies promise mobile subscribers a whole new experience of the Internet by truly extending the Internet’s reach well beyond their desktops or laptops to their very person. Meanwhile, the mobile packet core (MPC) pledges to not only help the mobile operators monetize the tidal wave of mobile Internet data traffic expected to hit the backhaul networks, but also enable a brand-new user experience built on highly-personalized and innovative applications running on mobile devices. Companies like Cisco via their acquisition of Starent and Tellabs through their purchase of WiChorus are preparing for the aforementioned data traffic tidal wave, which has already begun. At the moment, MPC promises a win-win situation for both operators (from a business angle) and for subscribers for their Internet experience. If successful, the mobile Internet enabled by MPC and 4G radio architectures like LTE and WiMax could ultimately change the quality of our lives by providing true Internet access on-the-go. However, only time will tell if these prophecies eventually turn out to be as true as the operators are betting on, and as the mobile subscribers are looking forward to.

That the BWA market in India is potentially the single-largest WiMax market in the world is not in question. Please see this article by Alan J Weissberger for corroboration:  Study Predicts India to be Largest WiMAX market in Asia Pacific by 2013

Additionally, the Indian government’s belief that the far-flung areas of India can be connected to the Internet wirelessly is reasonable, if one is to consider the astounding success of the cellular phone services in India where 442 million subscribers currently enjoy the services and, on an average, 10 million new subscribers have been added per month over the last 2 years. However, the promise of monetizing the Indian BWA market will depend on when the BWA spectrum is auctioned and allocated to operators, which, as of the time of the writing of this article, was still not finalized. Furthermore, as Alan Weissberger has noted, the BWA deployment in India will feature WiMax for fixed broadband wireless access rather than true mobile WiMax, as Indian mobile operators plan to use 3G services for mobile broadband access. This result is rather surprising, as one would expect the WiMax supporters to have left no stone unturned to leverage the vast Indian mobile broadband access market potential and showcase mobile WiMax’s capabilities versus LTE.