Zayo’s largest capacity wavelengths deal likely for cloud data center interconnection (DCI)

Zayo Group Holdings announced it has signed a deal for the largest amount of capacity sold on any fiber route in the company’s history.  The deal with the unnamed customer will provide approximately 5 terabits of capacity that can be used to connect mega scale data centers. While Zayo didn’t disclose the customer, large hyperscale cloud providers, such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Project, and webscale companies such as Facebook, seem to be likely candidates.

Zayo provides a 133,000-mile fiber network in the U.S., Canada and Europe.  Earlier this year it agreed to be acquired by affiliates of Digital Colony Partners and the EQT Infrastructure IV fund.  That deal is slated to close in the first half of next year.

“Our customers [1] are no longer talking gigabits — they’re talking terabits on multiple diverse routes,” said Julia Robin, senior vice president of Transport at Zayo. “Zayo’s owned infrastructure, scalable capacity on unique routes and ability to turn up services quickly positions us to be the provider of choice for high-capacity infrastructure.”

Note 1. Zayo’s primary customer segments include data centers, wireless carriers, national carriers, ISPs, enterprises and government agencies.

Image result for image of zayo's fiber optic network

Zayo to extend fiber-optic network in central Florida: The new fiber network infrastructure, comprising more than 2300 route miles, will open Tampa and Orlando as new markets for the fiber-optic network services company.

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Zayo’s extensive wavelength network provides dedicated bandwidth to major data centers, carrier hotels, cable landing stations and enterprise locations across our long-haul and metro networks. Zayo continues to invest in the network, adding new routes and optronics to eliminate local stops, reduce the distance between essential markets and minimize regeneration points. Options include express, ultra-low and low-latency routes and private dedicated networks.

Zayo says it “leverages its deep, dense fiber assets in almost all North American and Western European metro markets to deliver a premier metro wavelength offering. Increasingly, enterprises across multiple sectors including finance, retail, pharma and others, are leveraging this network for dedicated connectivity as they seek ways to have more control over their growing bandwidth needs.”

According to a report by market research firm IDC, data created, captured and replicated worldwide will be 175 zettabytes by 2025 and 30% of it will be in real time. A large chunk of that amount will be driven by webscale, content and cloud providers that require diverse, high capacity connections between their data centers. In order to provision high bandwidth amounts, service providers and webscale companies are turning to dedicated wavelength solutions.

Zayo’s wavelength network provides dedicated bandwidth to major data centers, carrier hotels, cable landing stations and enterprise locations across its long-haul and metro networks. Its communications infrastructure offerings include dark fiber, private data networks, wavelengths, Ethernet, dedicated internet access and data center co-location services. Zayo also owns and operates a Tier 1 IP backbone and 51 carrier-neutral data centers.

References:

https://investors.zayo.com/news-and-events/press-releases/press-release-details/2019/Zayo-Announces-Largest-Capacity-Wavelengths-Deal/default.aspx

For more information on Zayo, please visit zayo.com

https://www.fiercetelecom.com/telecom/zayo-lands-largest-wavelengths-deal-its-history-at-5-terabits

 

Nokia and Wipro partner to develop 5G use cases for accelerating technology adoption in India; 5G end-to-end live network trial in Indonesia

At the Indian Mobile Congress (IMC 2019) in New Delhi, Finland headquartered Nokia announced it has partnered with Indian IT services company Wipro to develop 5G use cases for telecom operators and enterprise customers.  Nokia said it is testing several 5G use cases at its research and development lab in Bengaluru (previously known as Bangalore) India, while Wipro is expected to provide domain-based solutions required for this new 5G ecosystem.

The collaboration will explore technical and operational feasibility of use cases, such as augmented reality/virtual reality (AR/VR)-based immersive learning experience, as well as drone-based applications for agriculture, public safety energy, and utilities, using real-time network analytics, life cycle operation management and edge computing.   While Nokia will provide a live 5G end-to-end system, including radio, core and devices in its lab, Wipro will integrate its application solutions for 5G use cases that include software solutions and user devices along with key system integration and delivery capabilities.  The turnkey solutions are expected to help operators and enterprise customers realize full value from their 5G investments, Nokia said in a press release.

“We are thrilled to be an open-innovation partner to Nokia to work on innovative and creative 5G use cases,” K R Sanjiv, Chief Technology Officer, Wipro, said in a statement.  “With Nokia’s expertise and leadership in 5G, we are confident that we will create more useful 5G use cases in the future, which will help the operators in the rapid adoption of the technology and faster realisation of their 5G investment,” Sanjiv added.

As part of the partnership, Nokia will provide a live 5G end-to-end system, while Wipro will integrate its application solutions for 5G use cases that include software solutions and user devices along with key system integration and delivery capabilities.  Several enterprise use cases, tested by Wipro in a live 5G network at Nokia’s Bengaluru lab, are being showcased at India Mobile Congress 2019 here.

Nokia and Wipro have already conducted lab tests of two 5G use cases – drone-based transmission line monitoring within the utility domain and in immersive entertainment experiences for large scale events, such as sports championships, aimed at enhancing the user experience.  These use cases will be further developed and validated, along with other new use cases that can be rapidly executed for field trials for mass adoption, once the 5G spectrum is available, Nokia said.

“Globally, Nokia is at the forefront of developing the 5G ecosystem. Our state-of-the-art Bengaluru R&D centre is working with several partners to do just this, and we are committed to supporting Indian operators in their 5G journey.  Our work with Wipro is a crucial step in this direction. The initiative also supports the Indian government’s plans to fast-track the development of use cases that will be socially beneficial and unique to India” said Randeep Raina, Chief Technology Officer at Nokia India.

Nokia said its network function virtualization infrastructure (NFVI)-based secured edge cloud comes in handy for low-latency use cases whereas its internet of things (IoT) impact platform-based device management to host and manage the lifecycle support 5G use cases in different industry verticals.

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The companies have already conducted lab tests of two use cases – drone-based transmission line monitoring within the utilities domain and in immersive entertainment experiences for large scale events such as sports championships, aimed at enhancing the user experience. The companies are looking to further develop and validate other use cases that can be rapidly executed for field trials for mass adoption.

India’s central government is planning to conduct 5G spectrum auctions by the end of this year.  Indian Union minister for communications and information technology Ravi Shankar Prasad said earlier this week that reforms are expected in the pricing of the 5G spectrum.

India Has the Highest Unit Pricing of 5G Spectrum

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Separately, Nokia and Hutchison 3 have completed the  first 5G end-to-end live network trial in Indonesia.  The trial, which was conducted on a Nokia network on millimeter wave frequencies, demonstrates the 3ID network’s ability to support end-to-end 5G deployment.

Multiple tests were conducted on the 28 GHz spectrum, obtaining the highest data download speeds of up to 1.62 Gbps with 11ms latency while upload speeds of 75.9 Mbps were measured. The trial also included a voice call test, which was initiated on the 5G trial network and realized over VoLTE (voice over existing LTE network) to demonstrate how basic telephony services would be handled in 5G.

The trial, which also involved the Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, was conducted at the Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS) in Surabaya, East Java. It focused on education-related use cases, utilizing 5G technology to enable a public lecture conducted in real-time between two major cities, Surabaya and Jakarta. During the trial, ministry officials and academics from the ITS delivered a public lecture, with a representative from the Indonesia 5G Forum joining them via a live stream holographic projection from Jakarta.

The tests were conducted over a Nokia-built network, including radio, core and transport, providing high, unfettered download and upload speeds with low latency. They demonstrated how 5G technology can be used to give students remote access to learning materials that may be difficult to access due to physical distances. The trial also showed how the learning experience can be made more immersive while helping students compete with their academic peers in other locations. It also confirmed the ability of 5G to go well beyond simple connectivity in supporting economic and social development in Indonesia.

KP Goh, Head of Indonesia at Nokia, said: “Completing the first 5G end-to-end trial in Indonesia is an important milestone. 5G is going to change just about everything – every industry, every business, and every experience – including the student experience. With Nokia’s end-to-end 5G technology, Indonesia is ready to support 5G deployment now and Indonesian students are able to reap the benefits of faster connections with lower latency. With 48 commercial 5G contracts and more than 100 customer engagements, we are pleased to see the pace of 5G progress accelerating across the globe – including Indonesia.”

Cliff Woo, Chief Executive Officer at Hutchison 3 Indonesia, said: “This trial, powered by Nokia’s end-to-end capability, showcases how 5G technology can help students across Indonesia to have equal opportunities and compete with their peers in other countries – by connecting them to sources of knowledge from all across the world. Nokia is one of our key technology partners in Indonesia. We are pleased to have completed this important trial with Nokia. It will pave the way for the 5G journey to serve the Indonesian people and industry.”

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References:

https://www.expresscomputer.in/industries/it-ites/nokia-partners-with-wipro-to-develop-5g-ecosystem-in-india/42633/

https://www.techcircle.in/2019/10/16/nokia-and-wipro-to-develop-5g-use-cases-for-accelerating-technology-adoption

https://www.digianalysys.com/nokia-and-wipro-to-develop-5g-use-cases/

https://nokiapoweruser.com/nokia-and-wipro-joined-hands-to-develop-5g-ecosystem-in-india/

https://www.nokia.com/about-us/news/releases/2019/10/14/nokia-and-hutchison-3-complete-first-5g-end-to-end-live-network-trial-in-indonesia/

https://www.nokia.com/networks/5g/

 

IHS Markit: CenturyLink #1 in the 2019 North American SIP Trunking Scorecard

By Diane Myers, senior research director, IHS Markit

Highlights:

  • CenturyLink leads the market for session initiation protocol (SIP) trunking with the largest installed base of all North American providers.
  • Twilio has been a disruptor in the SIP trunking market and placed second in the scorecard due to solid market momentum.
  • Verizon and AT&T were #3 and #4, respectively.

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Editor’s Note:

SIP (Session Initiated Protocol) trunking  is a method of sending voice and other unified communications services over the internet.  It works with an IP-enabled PBX (private branch exchange). SIP trunking replaces traditional telephone lines or PRIs (Primary Rate Interface).connects both IP and analog devices via the Internet, eliminating the need to maintain separate voice circuits or replace legacy equipment.

Before SIP became a popular and reliable method of transmitting voice signals, telephone calls were carried over the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The PSTN is a circuit switched network, which requires a physical connection between two points to complete a call.

SIP trunks are virtual phone lines that enable users to make and receive phone calls over the internet to anyone in the world with a phone number. SIP trunks utilize a packet switch network, in which voice calls are broken down into digital packets and sent across a network to the final destination.

Each SIP trunk supports SIP channels. A SIP channel is equivalent to one incoming or outgoing call. A SIP trunk can hold an unlimited number of channels, so users only need one SIP trunk no matter how many concurrent calls they expect. The number of channels required depends on how many calls the business will make at any one time.

References:

https://www.sip.us/blog/latest-news/sip-trunking-101-the-fundamentals/

https://www.nextiva.com/blog/sip-trunking.html

 

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IHS Markit analysis:

In its 2019 SIP Trunking North America Scorecard, IHS Markit analyzed and ranked the top SIP trunking providers in North America. For the fourth year in a row, CenturyLink leads the SIP trunking market with solid growth and the largest installed base of trunks. CenturyLink has done extensive work over the past two years bringing together its assets with those of Level 3, a company it acquired in 2017, to build a market-leading service portfolio and customer base.

In this year’s scorecard, Twilio made another jump to the second-ranked position because of its strong financial score and the continued growth of its installed base. Twilio has been a market disruptor with its Elastic SIP Trunking service, which has grown to attain a sizable installed base. The strong growth of Twilio’s Elastic SIP Trunking service reflects the widespread appeal of flexible consumption-based pricing.

Just a few years ago, there was little differentiation in the SIP trunking market. Fast forward to today, and there is a stark difference between traditional trunking services and the new on-demand trunks. Traditional trunking remains grounded in the old world of contracting for voice networking. In contrast, with on-demand trunks, customers simply pay for what they use and never need to worry about capacity planning.

SIP Trunking North America Scorecard:

In the 11th annual SIP Trunking North America Scorecard, IHS Markit analyzes the top-10 North American SIP trunking service providers: CenturyLink, Twilio, Verizon, AT&T, IntelePeer, Fusion, Rogers, Voyant, Windstream and Sprint. The criteria used in this analysis include market share, financial strength, market share momentum, service development and support options.

Dell’ Oro Group: WLAN market bifurcation drag on IEEE 802.11ax; 400 Gbps Shipments to Surpass 15M Switch Ports by 2023

WLAN market bifurcation drag on IEEE 802.11ax

According to a newly released market forecast report by Dell’ Oro Group, the Enterprise WLAN market bifurcation is expected to drag down the IEEE 802.11ax adoption rate. The report also anticipates subscription license sales to more than double by 2023.

“We see a clear segmentation unfolding in the Enterprise WLAN market,” said Ritesh Patel, Industry Analyst at Dell’ Oro Group. “One segment is a group of performance-seeking users who are willing to pay a premium for higher performance. The other, is the price-sensitive segment—a group of users who prefer to purchase older technology at a lower price. Our analysis shows that the performance-seeking segment adopts new technology at a faster rate than the price-sensitive segment. We forecast this phenomenon to impact the overall adoption rate for 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6),” added Patel.

“Another trend unfolding is the growing popularity of subscription licenses, which is adding significantly to market revenue. Performance-seeking users are purchasing licenses for applications such as predictive analytics, visibility into the network for troubleshooting, and enhanced security,” said Patel.

The WLAN 5-Year Forecast Report highlights other key trends, including:

  • Enterprise WLAN market revenues to surpass $9 B by 2023.
  • Access Point average prices rising in the near-term.
  • 11ax access points to sustain a price premium for an extended period.

The Dell’Oro Group Wireless LAN 5-Year Forecast Report offers a complete overview of the industry, covering Enterprise Outdoor and Indoor markets, with tables containing manufacturers’ revenue, average selling prices, and unit shipments by the following wireless standards: 802.11ax, 802.11ac Wave 1 vs. Wave 2, 802.11n, and historic IEEE 802.11 standards. It includes forecasts for regions of the world and for Cloud-managed vs. Premises-managed. To purchase these reports, please contact us by email at dgsales@delloro.com

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400 Gbps shipments to surpass 15M Switch Ports by 2023

Dell’Oro revealed in a separate report, that 400 Gbps switch ports are forecast to surpass 15M by 2023. The 100 Gbps ports are expected to peak in 2020 but still comprise more than 30 percent of data center switch ports in the next five years.

“The first wave of 400 Gbps switch systems based on 12.8 Tbps chips were introduced in the market in 2H 2018,”said Sameh Boujelbene, Senior Director at Dell’Oro Group. “However, we do not expect material adoption of 400 Gbps until 2020 due to the lack of high volume, low cost 400 Gbps optics. The only Cloud Service Provider (SP) that started deploying 400 Gbps was Google, which opted for special 400 Gbps optics with an earlier time-to-market. Meanwhile, we expect other Cloud SPs, for instance Amazon, Facebook or Microsoft, to keep deploying 100 Gbps, and to probably consume the 12.8 Tbps chips in the form of high–density 100 Gbps switch systems to reduce cost,” added Boujelbene.

The Ethernet Switch – Data Center 5-Year Forecast Report provides more details about the timing of 100/200/400/800 Gbps and how the use cases may vary depending on the SerDes lane and market segment driving the speed.

The Dell’Oro Group Ethernet Switch – Data Center Five Year Forecast Report provides a comprehensive overview of market trends and include tables covering manufacturers’ revenue, port shipments, and average selling price forecasts for various technologies: Modular and Fixed by Port Speed; Fixed Managed and Unmanaged by Port Speed. We forecast the following port speeds: 1000 Mbps; 10 Gbps; 25 Gbps; 40 Gbps; 50 Gbps; 100 Gbps; 200 Gbps; 400 Gbps.  To purchase these reports, please contact us by email at dgsales@delloro.com.

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Who else has announced or deployed 400G?

We’ve spent a lot of time searching for answers to that question but have found little.  In particular, Amazon has been very secretive in their AWS inter data center deployments which one would expect to have used 400G optics (probably 4 x 100G lanes).

Image result for pic of 400G fiber optic link

Last October, Cisco announced its first set of 400G data center network switches.  Two of the switches were aimed at hyperscale cloud platforms, while the other two are for tech-savvy enterprises, and service providers. The two new Cisco Nexus 3400-S switches are for hyperscalers with high-bandwidth needs for things like video streaming, while the two new Nexus 9000 switches are for high-end enterprises taking advantage of artificial intelligence and machine learning and service providers building 5G networks, Thomas Scheibe, VP of product management for Cisco Data Center Switching, told Data Center Knowledge.  Arista Networks announced plans for its first 400G switches last week, while Juniper Networks released details of its forthcoming 400GbE switches in July 2018.

“Everybody who sells to hyperscalers – whether that be Cisco, Juniper, Arista, or the white-box ODMs – will need to have 400GbE data center switches in their portfolio in 2019,” Brad Casemore, IDC’s VP for data center networks, told Data Center Knowledge. “There’s really no alternative, and that’s why you’ve seen a succession of 400GbE announcements from Juniper, Arista, and Cisco respectively. From a sales standpoint, they will all reach market at about the same time, but nobody wants to get outmaneuvered by a competitor.”

In an IEEE techblog post summarizing Facebook’s F16 Switch announcement at OCP 2019 Summit, we said that “Facebook built the F16 fabric out of 16 128-port 100G switches, achieving the same bandwidth as four 128-port 400G switches would.”  So they achieved effective 400G switch ports using 16 times as many 100G switch ports.

In its second quarter earnings call last month, Juniper Networks CEO Rami Rahim said that Juniper has started shipping its first merchant and custom silicon-based 400-gig capable products and that it plans additional 400G products throughout the course of this year and next.   Rahim said that 400G won’t really take off until 400G optics are available, which Juniper will ramp up in the first half of next year. Rahim also said the while the cloud providers will be the first big 400G customers, he expects service providers to be next in line.

Hyperscalers have been the primary drivers for 400G demand, he said. But other segments of the market, including telecommunications service providers rolling out 5G networks and high-end enterprises in verticals such as financial services, will also adopt the technology.  “Hyperscalers will be first, and they will buy in the greatest volumes, creating the sort of economies of scale that will make 400G more affordable for subsequent buyers,” Casemore said.

Here’s a good reference on Trends in 400G Optics for the Data Center.

Virgin Media Experimenting with 10 Gbps mmWave backhaul in UK fixed broadband FTTP trial

UK’s Virgin Media has been exploring possibilities of delivering backhaul traffic over the air (OTA) in a small village in the English countryside. Although this is something which Virgin Media has been doing for years, this time the company is experimenting with mmWave as opposed to microwave.

“As we invest to expand our ultra-fast network we’re always looking at new, innovative ways to make build more efficient and connect premises that might currently be out of reach,” said Jeanie York, Chief Technology and Information Officer at Virgin Media. “While presently this is a trial, it’s clear that this technology could help to provide more people and businesses with the better broadband they deserve.”

The challenge which seems to be addressed here is combining the complications of deploying infrastructure and the increasing data appetite of the consumer. As you can see below, the trial makes use of mmWave to connect two ‘trunk’ points over 3 km with a 10 Gbps signal. The signal is converted at the cabinet, before being sent through the last-mile on a fiber connection.Virgin Media

Although this trial only connected 12 homes in the village of Newbury, Virgin Media believes this process could support delivery of residential services to 500 homes. This assumption also factors in a 40% average annual growth in data consumption. With further upgrades, the radio link could theoretically support a 20 Gbps connection, taking the number of homes serviced to 2,000.

The advantage of this approach to delivering broadband is the ability to skip over tricky physical limitations. There are numerous villages which are experiencing poor connections because the vast spend which would have to be made to circumnavigate a valley, rivers or train lines. This approach not only speeds up the deployment, it simplifies it and makes it cheaper.

Looking at the distance between the two ‘trunks’, Virgin Media has said 3km is just about as far as it can go with mmWave. This range takes into account different weather conditions, the trial included some adverse conditions such as 80mph winds and 30mm rainfall, but radios chained together and used back-to-back could increased this coverage and scope of applications.

Countryside

Virgin Media has unveiled the results of a new trial using wireless to deliver broadband to customers in remote locations.

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With alt-nets becoming increasingly common throughout the UK, new ideas to make use of mmWave and alternative technologies will need to be explored. Traditional network operators will find revenues being gradually eroded if a new vision of connectivity is not acquired.

Of course, use of mmWave for fixed broadband internet is common in the U.S., but it is proprietary to the equipment vendor (no standards) and line of sight is required from the network operators equipment to an antenna mounted on the rooftop of the home  being served.

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Reference:

http://telecoms.com/498170/virgin-media-to-take-a-mmwave-approach-to-full-fibre/

Pre-Pub Version of ITU-T G.9701-2019: Fast access to subscriber terminals (G.fast) – Physical layer for copper wire or coax cables

Overview of ITU-T G.9701-2019 (as of May 24, 2019):

Summary:

1.  Previous version: Recommendation ITU-T G.9701-2014 specifies a gigabit broadband access technology that exploits the existing infrastructure of copper wire-pairs that were originally deployed for plain old telephone service (POTS) services. Equipment implementing this Recommendation can be deployed from fibre-fed distribution points (fibre to the distribution point, FTTdp) located very near the customer premises, or within buildings (fibre to the building, FTTB). This Recommendation supports asymmetric and symmetric transmission at an aggregate net data rate up to 1 Gbit/s on twisted wirepairs using spectrum up to 106 MHz and specifies all necessary functionality to support far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellation between multiple wire-pairs, and facilitates low power operation.

2. Recommendation ITU-T G.9701-2019 integrates ITU-T G.9701-2014 and all of its corrigenda and amendments, and adds support for the following new functionality: LPM classes, optional extension of probe sequence length, short CLR/CL messages, Annex R – Showtime reconfiguration, and Appendix IV – Targeted generalized vectoring with active G.9701 supporting lines (TGVA). It also adds several clarifications, and fixes various errors and inconsistencies including ANDEFTR support, SRA triggering and PMS-TC parameter requirements, and conditions for an rtx-uc anomaly.

Scope:

This Recommendation specifies the operation of a broadband access technology that exploits the existing infrastructure of wire-pairs that were originally deployed for plain old telephone service (POTS) and, with Amendment 3, adds support for operation over coaxial cables.

This Recommendation supports transmission at an aggregate net data rate (the sum of upstream and downstream rates) up to approximately 2 Gbit/s.

While asymmetric digital subscriber line transceivers 2 (ADSL2) – extended bandwidth (ADSL2plus) uses approximately 2 MHz of the spectrum, and very high speed digital subscriber line transceivers 2 (VDSL2) uses up to 35 MHz of the spectrum, this Recommendation defines profiles using spectrum up to 106 MHz and 212 MHz and specifies all necessary functionality to support the use of far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellation between ITU-T G.9701 transceivers deployed on multiple wire-pairs. The availability of spectrum up to 106 MHz or 212 MHz allows ITU-T G.9701 transceivers to provide reliable high data rate operation on very short loops. This Recommendation can be deployed from fibre-fed distribution points located very near the customer premises, or within the buildings. This Recommendation is optimized to operate over wire-pairs up to approximately 250 m of 0.5 mm diameter. However, it is capable of operation over wire-pairs up to at least 400 meters of 0.5 mm diameter, subject to some performance limitations.

This Recommendation defines a wide range of settings for various parameters (such as spectral usage and transmitter power) that may be supported by a transceiver. Therefore, this Recommendation specifies profiles to allow transceivers to support a subset of the allowed settings and still be compliant with the Recommendation. The specification of multiple profiles allows vendors to limit the implementation complexity and develop implementations that target specific service requirements. This edition of the Recommendation specifies transmission profiles for inband spectral usage of up to 212 MHz and maximum transmit power up to +8 dBm. This Recommendation operates in compliance with the power spectral density (PSD) specification in [ITU-T G.9700].

As per ITU-T Recommendations in the ITU-T G.99x series, this Recommendation uses [ITU-T G.994.1] to initiate the transceiver training sequence. Through negotiation during the handshake phase of the initialization, the capability of equipment to support this Recommendation and/or ITU-T G.99x series Recommendations (e.g., [ITU-T G.993.2] defining VDSL2) is identified. For reasons of interoperability, equipment may support multiple Recommendations such that it is able to adapt to the operating mode supported by the far-end equipment.

It is the intention of this Recommendation to provide, by negotiation during the initialization, U interface compatibility and interoperability between transceivers complying with this Recommendation, including transceivers that support different combinations of options. The technology specified in this Recommendation provides the following key application features:

• Best aspects of fibre to the home (FTTH): up to 2 Gbit/s aggregate net data rate;
• Best aspects of ADSL2: customer self-install and operation in the presence of bridged taps, avoiding operator truck-rolls to the customer premises for installation and activation of the broadband access service;

• Coexistence with ADSL2 and VDSL2 on adjacent wire-pairs;
• Low power operation and all functionality necessary to allow transceivers to be deployed as part of reverse powered (and possibly battery operated) network equipment and to adapt to environmental conditions (e.g., temperature);
• Management capabilities allowing transceivers to operate in a zero touch deployment, avoiding truck-rolls to the network equipment for installation and activation of new or upgraded broadband access service;
• Control of the upstream vs downstream transmission time to adapt net data rates to the needs of the business and the residential customers;
• Vectoring (self-crosstalk cancellation) for increased net data rates on wire-pairs that experience far-end crosstalk from ITU-T G.9701 transceivers in the same vectored group operating on other wire-pairs in the same cable or operating on other wire-pairs originating from the same network equipment;
• Network timing reference (NTR) and time-of-day (ToD) transport for network frequency and time synchronization between network and customer premises equipment;
• Configuration of spectrum use, including configuration of the transmit power spectral density (PSD) limitations and notches to meet electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.

The technology specified in this Recommendation uses the following key functionalities and capabilities:
• Transparent transport of data packets (e.g., Ethernet packets) at an aggregate (sum of upstream and downstream) data rate of up to 2 Gbit/s;
• In-band spectral usage up to 212 MHz;
• Configurable start and stop frequencies, PSD shaping and notching;
• Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation (2 048/4 096 subcarriers with 51.75 kHz subcarrier
spacing);
• Time-division duplexing (sharing time between upstream and downstream transmission);
• Low latency retransmission, facilitating impulse noise protection (INP) between the V and T reference points at all data rates to deal with isolated erasure events at the U reference point of at least 10 ms, without loss of user data;
• Forward error correction based on Trellis coding and Reed-Solomon coding;
• Vectoring (self-FEXT cancellation), where this edition of the Recommendation uses linear precoding;
• Discontinuous operation where not all of the time available for data transmission is used;
• Online reconfiguration (OLR) for adaptation to changes of the channel and noise characteristics, including fast rate adaptation (FRA).

With these functionalities and capabilities, the technology specified in this Recommendation targets the following aggregate net data rates over a 0.5 mm straight wire-pair for 106 MHz profiles:
• 500 to 1000 Mbit/s on a wire-pair shorter than 100 m;
• 500 Mbit/s at 100 m;
• 200 Mbit/s at 200 m;
• 150 Mbit/s at 250 m;
• 500 Mbit/s at 50 m, while operating in the band above 17 MHz.

Image result for Reference model of FTTdp deployment

References:

The following ITU-T Recommendations and other references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this Recommendation.   At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All Recommendations and other references are subject to revision; users of this Recommendation are therefore encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the Recommendations and other references listed below. A list of the currently valid ITU-T Recommendations is regularly published. The reference to a document within this Recommendation does not give it, as a stand-alone document, the status of a Recommendation.

[ITU-T G.117] Recommendation ITU-T G.117 (2007), Transmission impairments due to speech Processing.
[ITU-T G.994.1] Recommendation ITU-T G.994.1 (2018), Handshake procedures for digital subscriber line transceivers.
[ITU-T G.997.2] Recommendation ITU-T G.997.2 (2019), Physical layer management for ITU-T G.9701 transceivers.
[ITU-T G.9700] Recommendation ITU-T G.9700 (2019), Fast access to subscriber terminals (G.fast) – Power spectral density specification.
[ITU-T O.9] Recommendation ITU-T O.9 (1999), Measuring arrangements to assess the degree of unbalance about earth.
[ITU-T T.35] Recommendation ITU-T T.35 (2000), Procedure for the allocation of ITU-T defined codes for non-standard facilities.
[ISO 8601] ISO 8601:2000, Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times.

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The complete document is available to ITU-T members with a TIES account.

 

 

Berg Insight: China driving global cellular IoT adoption via NB-IoT; 5G-IoT coming in late 2020

A new report from the IoT analyst firm Berg Insight estimates that the global number of cellular IoT (e.g. NB-IoT, LTE-M, LTE, 2G, 3G, etc) subscribers increased by 70 percent during 2018 to reach 1.2 billion.  IoT growth was driven by “exceptional adoption” in China. 

The market research firm forecasts that there will be 9 billion IoT devices connected to cellular networks worldwide by 2023.

China, which accounted for 63% of the global installed base in 2018, is expected to continue to be the key driver for IoT adoption, as the Chinese government is actively driving adoption as a tool for achieving domestic and economic policy goals.

“China is deploying cellular IoT technology at a monumental scale”, said Tobias Ryberg, principal analyst and author of the report.

According to data from the Chinese mobile operators, the installed base in the country increased by 124% year-on-year to reach 767 million at the end of 2018.

China has overtaken Europe and North America in penetration rate with 54.7 IoT connections per 100 inhabitants, Ryberg said.

He said the role of the government is the main explanation for why China is ahead of the rest of the world in the adoption of IoT.

“The most distinctive characteristic of the Chinese IoT market is however the way that the government is systematically using new technology to implement its vision for urban life in the 21st century,” Ryberg said.

“At the same time the private sector also implements IoT technology to improve efficiency and drive innovation.”

China has witnessed widespread adoption of connected cars, fleet management, smart metering, asset monitoring and as well as new consumer services like bike sharing.

The report also analyses the IoT business KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) released by mobile operators in different parts of the world and found significant regional differences.

While China has the world’s highest IoT penetration rate, Europe seems is doing better job in terms of monetizing the IoT business.

According to the report, the monthly ARPU for cellular IoT connectivity services in China was only €0.22 ($0.25), compared to € 0.70 in Europe.

Global revenues from cellular IoT connectivity services increased by 19% in 2018 to reach €6.7 billion. The ten largest players had a combined revenue share of around 80%.

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Editor’s Note:  The most popular cellular IoT network in China is NB-IoT.  China Telecom Offers NBIoT Nationwide. ChinaTelecom has built the world’s largest NBIoT network so far by upgrading 310,000 base stations acrossChina to support NBIoT. … It is using the 800MHz spectrum band, which is being refarmed for 4G in China and enables good in-building penetration and very wide coverage.

A GSMA case study illustrates how China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom enable consumers and businesses to benefit from better services using NB-IoT, while opening up new business models for mobile operators and their partners.

Supporting extensive coverage and low power consumption, NB-IoT is making it feasible to securely remotely monitor and control very large volumes of everyday devices, appliance, machines and vehicles. Both consumers and businesses in China are now benefiting from greater convenience, better reliability, and improved safety and security.

Above image courtesy of GSMA

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In a separate report, Berg Insight says 5G will reach the IoT market in late 2020. 

The first 5G cellular IoT modules will become available to developers this year, enabling early adopters to create the first IoT devices based on the standard. Based on the experience of previous introductions of new standards, 5G will however not be an instant hit. By 2023, Berg Insight forecasts that 5G will account for just under 3 percent of the total installed base of cellular IoT devices.

“5G still has some way to go before it can become a mainstream technology for cellular IoT”, says Tobias Ryberg, Principal Analyst and author of the report.

“Just like 4G when it was first introduced, the initial version of 5G is mostly about improving network performance and data capacity. This is only relevant for a smaller subset of high-bandwidth cellular IoT applications like connected cars, security cameras and industrial routers. The real commercial breakthrough will not happen until the massive machine type communication (mMTC) use case has been implemented in the standard.”

mMTC is intended as an evolution of the LTE-M/NB-IoT enhancements to the 4G standard. Since NB-IoT has only just started to appear in commercial products, there is no immediate demand for a successor. Over time, fifth generation mobile networks will however become necessary to cope with the expected exponential growth of IoT connections and data traffic. The report identifies homeland security as an area where 5G cellular IoT can have a major impact already in the early 2020s.

“5G enables the deployment of high-density networks of AI-supported security cameras to monitor anything form security-classified facilities to national borders or entire cities”, says Mr. Ryberg.

“How this technology is used and by whom is likely to become one of the most controversial issues in the next decade.” 

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References:

http://www.berginsight.com/News.aspx?m_m=6&s_m=1

https://www.gsma.com/iot/nbiot-iot-commercial-case-study-china/

https://www.telecomasia.net/content/berg-insight-china-driving-global-cellular-iot-adoption

 

WDM-PON to Enable 5G+FTTH Converged Gigaband Access

SOURCE:  ZTE

Introduction:

5G networks will be distinctly different then 4G-LTE networks, even though all so called “5G” pre-standard deployments use 3GPP Rel 15 5G-NR NSA (Non Stand Alone) for the data plane, with a heavy LTE anchor for: signaling, network management and mobile packet core (EVC).  ITU-R will specify the radio related standards for 5G, while ITU-T will standardize the non radio aspects, as reported NUMEROUS times on this techblog website.

Several market research firms forecast that 5G base stations installed in China will be two to three times as many as 4G- LTE base stations.  GSMA forecasts that from launch in 2020,  Chinese 5G connections will scale rapidly over time, to reach 428 million by 2025. Beyond this date, further growth will be determined by incremental network rollout (and the ability of operators to earn ROI), and the price point at which 5G devices are available.

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Definitions:  C-RAN, DUs, and AAUs:

The Centralized Radio Access Network (C-RAN) mode where the Distributed Units (DUs) for many Active Antenna Units (AAUs) are placed at a centralized location significantly increases the fronthaul distance between DUs and AAUs. If all DU-AAU connections are through fiber, the amount of fiber required will rise by 10-fold. That entails heavy civil works and enormous investments.

25Gbps WDM-PON is Ideal for 5G Fronthaul:

WDM-PON is a passive optical networking technology that can be used to address the fiber deployment challenges. A WDM-PON design can be used to separate optical-network units (ONUs) into several virtual point-to-point connections over the same physical infrastructure, a feature that enables efficient use of fiber compared to point-to-point direct fiber connection and offers lower latency than TDM-based technologies. A notable benefit of this technology is high bandwidth, low latency, and fiber savings. 5G fronthaul based on 25Gbps WDM-PON technology has the following technical advantages:

  • Support for CPRI and eCPRI standards as well as 4G/5G hybrid networking.
  • 25Gbps high bandwidth per wavelength, which can smoothly evolve to 50Gbps in the future.
  • Up to 20 pairs of wavelengths on a single trunk fiber.
  • Colorless ONU technology allows flexible wavelength allocation and wavelength routing.
  • In the future, a colorless Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) ONU can be directly inserted into the AAU for easy installation.
  • The Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) incurs a power loss of about 5.5 dBm, which is lower than that of the optical splitter.

5G+FTTH Converged Gigaband Access Solution

WDM-PON is a key innovation that enables 5G+FTTH converged gigaband access. Compared with direct fiber connections between DU and AAU, the WDM-PON based fronthaul mode saves trunk fibers by more than 90 percent (shown as Figure 1). Another advantage of WDM- PON is that wavelengths can be flexibly allocated and resources can be remotely, centrally managed.

WDM PON enriches and perfects 5G fronthaul technology, giving operators more options by allowing for 5G+FTTH converged gigaband access in dense urban areas.

Based on the above principles, ZTE and China Telecom jointly launched the 5G+FTTH Converged Gigaband Access solution. The solution has unique advantages in trunk fiber, equipment space and power savings. Specifically, it:

  • Cuts 95 percent trunk fiber by allowing up to 20 AAUs to share the same trunk fiber.
  • Saves 10 percent power and shrinks space through OLT reuse.
  • Reduces overall investments by 50 percent.

In addition to the high-density WDM-PON cards, the OLT also innovatively provides TDM-like channels to ensure a processing latency of less than 7µs in the OLT. If the distance between OLT and ONU is 5 kilometers, a transmission latency of 25µs will ensue over the fiber. Consequently, the total end-to-end latency is less than 32μs, which is 68 percent lower than the 5G URLLC requirements. The TDM-like channel handles traffic sent from 5G AAUs in real time without the queuing, buffering, forwarding, routing and searching processes. The resulting low-latency forwarding meets the stringent latency requirements of 5G fronthaul for URLLC applications.

Industry’s First WDM-PON for 5G Fronthaul Validation:

In December 2018, ZTE and the Technology Innovation Department and Optical Access Research Department of China Telecom jointly completed the industry’s first validation of Nx25Gbps WDM-PON for 5G fronthaul on the live network of China Telecom Suzhou Branch. The validation demonstrated that 25Gbps WDM-PON could carry 5G fronthaul services stably and transparently, with the data rate and end-to-end latency equal to those in a point-to-point direct fiber connection.

Achievements in WDM-PON Standards and Technologies:

ZTE and China Telecom collaborate to actively participate in the standardization of WDM-PON. The collaboration has produced numerous achievements including:

  • Editor of “ITU-T G.Sup66 : 5G wireless fronthaul requirements in a passive optical network context” in October 2018.
  • Submitted five proposals to the ITU-T, applied for 23 patents and released two papers.

3) Co-led the formulation of the “Nx25Gbps WDM-PON for 5G Mobile Fronthaul” series standards of China Communications Standards Association (CCSA).

4) Formulated the industry’s first enterprise standard on Nx25Gbps WDM-PON management channels for China Telecom.

5) Proposed the concept of SFP ONUs, which has been accepted by CCSA and is being incorporated into its standards.

Besides the achievements in WDM-PON standards, ZTE has also made breakthroughs in key WDM-PON technologies, including:

1) Developed 25Gbps WDM-PON optical modules with low cost, low power consumption, and high transmission power.

2) Developed the technology of ultra-low latency forwarding of CPRI/eCPRI traffic based on cell switching.

Summary and Prospects:

25Gbps WDM-PON is ideal for 5G fronthaul. It is a key innovation to enable 5G+FTTH converged gigaband access in an economical way. ZTE is currently extending WDM-PON based fronthaul from outdoor AAUs to a 5G indoor distribution system. When indoor 5G fronthaul is combined with the Passive Optical LAN (POL), 5G+FTTO (Fiber To The Office) converged dual-gigabit rates can be achieved in industrial parks.

References:

https://www.mobileworldlive.com/zte-updates-2019-20/wdm-pon-a-key-innovation-to-enable-5gftth-converged-gigaband-access/

https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/?file=67a750f6114580b86045a6a0f9587ea0&download

https://www.openairinterface.org/docs/workshop/5_OAI_Workshop_20180620/YUAN_From%20C-RAN%20To%20O-RAN_CMCC.pdf

 

AT&T FirstNet Makes Great Progress; Deal with Mutualink increases Inter-operability

FirstNet is a dedicated LTE network for public safety users, which passed 600,000 “connections” earlier this month.  It has been built by AT&T and has has engagements with more than 7,000 public safety agencies.

FirstNet is built in public-private partnership with the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet Authority). This helps to ensure that the FirstNet communications platform and service offerings meet the short- and long-term needs of the public safety community.

FirstNet is improving communications to allow for improved response times and outcomes for first responders from coast-to-coast, in rural and urban areas, inland and on boarders – leading to safer, and more secure communities. It provides innovation and dedicated capacity so public safety can take advantage of advanced technologies, tools and services during emergencies, such as:

  • Applications that allow first responders to reliably share videos, text messages, photos and other information during incidents in near real-time
  • Devices configured to meet the focused needs of public safety
  • Improved location services to help with mapping capabilities during rescue and recovery operations
  • Deployables available for planned and unplanned emergency events

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Speaking this past week at the MoffettNathanson’s 6th  Annual Media & Communications Summit in New York City, AT&T Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer John Stephens discussed how the carrier’s deployment of FirstNet is progressing rapidly and laying the groundwork for 5G.

According to AT&T, FirstNet is 25% faster than any domestic commercial network.  That claim is based on Ookla test data covering average download speeds in Q1 2019.

The FirstNet build-out is instrumental to AT&T 5G deployment plans, Stephens said. “The FirstNet contract, which is enabling us to go through a process from an LTE to evolve into a 5G network, is really working. We’re getting dramatic speed uptakes. If you look at the two fastest networks in the United States right now, they’re both ours…That’s what’s driving the business. That’ll drive innovation, that’ll drive opportunity.”

As AT&T upgrades its cell sites to deploy Band 14 [1] for FirstNet, crews are upgrading other equipment to support the 5G New Radio specification. Stephens said the operator is working toward “national coverage of 5G” by the “middle of the next year.”

Note 1. Band 14 is the spectrum licensed to the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to create a nationwide public-safety wireless broadband network. Band 14represents 20 MHz of highly desirable spectrum in the 700 MHz band that provides good propagation in urban and rural areas and decent penetration into buildings.

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This week, AT&T announced it would resell Mutualink to enhance interoperable communications for public safety. This new relationship will allow AT&T to bring Mutualink’s Interoperable Response and Preparedness Platform (IRAPP) to first responders and supporting agencies using services provided over FirstNet public safety communications platform. 

Mutualink states on their website:  “This network is the largest nationwide network of public safety agencies, critical infrastructure, schools and private enterprise security. The IRAPP is transport agnostic, device agnostic and media agnostic. It leverages your current communications assets and incorporates new devices as needed. Connect to the IRAPP network via public or private LTE, satellite or terrestrial broadband.”

“FirstNet brings public safety one, nationwide platform for consistent, reliable communications across agencies and jurisdictions,” said Chris Sambar, senior vice president, FirstNet Program at AT&T. “As apps and mobile data increasingly become critical components of the public safety response, we want to help make sure the flow of information that FirstNet provides remains seamless. Our agreement with Mutualink aims to do just that, taking the interoperability that FirstNet provides to the next level.”

FirstNet already facilitates multi-agency communications to aid in incident response and resolution. The agreement with Mutualink builds upon this, expanding the reach, reliability and capability of FirstNet services today. FirstNet subscribers can use the Mutualink IRAPP solution to enhance their ability to easily and quickly communicate across systems and applications, sharing voice, data, video and more in a highly secure environment.

By bringing the Mutualink solution to the FirstNet platform, first responders using Mutualink’s IRAPP will be able to simultaneously take advantage of key FirstNet capabilities – like First Priority™, which enables priority and, for first responders, preemption.

“Adding Mutualink’s Interoperable Response and Preparedness Platform to the FirstNet communications platform will increase the level of interoperability for public safety, especially with respect to on-demand cross-agency interoperability. Our solution enables highly secure sharing of video and data across systems and integration with smart sensor and IoT systems,” Mark Hatten, chief executive officer and chairman, Mutualink. “This will help FirstNet subscribers scale up their access to emerging information as the situation unfolds, creating a common operating picture for all involved.”

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“FirstNet is helping first responders solve long-standing interoperability challenges and arming them with the information they need to coordinate action plans and make critical decisions. We’re pleased to see AT&T form innovative collaborations that will help foster a new era of situational awareness for public safety,” said FirstNet Authority Acting CEO Edward Parkinson.

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References:

https://www.firstnet.gov/network

https://about.att.com/story/2019/att_and_mutualink.html

https://mutualink.net/our-solution/

http://mutualink.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/1-National-Vision-White-Paper-3-17-17.pdf

https://www.rcrwireless.com/20190516/5g/att-5g-national-coverage

 

2019 IoT World: T-Mobile is Changing the Game for Massive IoT via NB-IoT

Introduction:

T-Mobile USA was the first U.S. wireless carrier to provide nationwide NB-IoT coverage last July.  The “uncarrier” is very proud to have 81 million cellular customers and a very low churn rate.  The company has invested billions of dollars in the last five years to modernize and transform its wireless network. As of February 7, 2019,  T-Mobile’s LTE network now covers 325 million people, according to a recent earning report..

During his May 14th 2019 IoT World keynote, Balaji Sridharan, VP of IoT & M2M at T-Mobile US, described the challenges to overcome to realize massive IoT at scale and T-Mobile’s wireless networks that might be used for three different classes of IoT connectivity.  Balaji also enumerate key features and attributes of NB-IoT and showed an interesting comparison chart of LPWANs.  He said its 600 MHz spectrum is deployed throughout the U.S.  [1]

Note 1.  During its April 2019 earnings call, CTO Neville Ray said: “we have over 1 million square miles of 600 megahertz LTE rolled out.  It’s working in 44 states and Puerto Rico. And we have a 100 million covered PoPs on 600 megahertz LTE. So we’ve said that in 2020, we’ll have a nationwide footprint on 5G. 

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IoT Classification and Characteristics [from Ericsson white paper]:

Massive IoT: Connecting billions of devices, small amounts of data volumes, (mostly) sent infrequently, low power required for long battery life (years not days, weeks or months).

Broadband IoT will need high throughput and/or low latency.; large data volumes.

Critical IoT will require ultra high reliability/availability and very low latency.  Industrial automation (and robotic surgery) will require time sensitive information delivery and precise positioning of devices.

Industrial Automation is tailored for advanced industrial automation in conjunction with the other cellular IoT segments. It includes Radio Access Network (RAN) capabilities to facilitate the support of deterministic networks which, together with ethernet-based protocols and other industrial protocols, will enable many advanced industrial automation applications. 

These applications have extremely demanding connectivity requirements and require very accurate indoor positioning and distinct architecture and security attributes. Industrial Automation IoT reinforced by Critical IoT connectivity is the key enabler for the full digitalization of Industry 4.0 for the world’s manufacturers, the Oil and Gas sectors as well as smart grid components for energy distribution companies. 

Figure 1: Cellular IoT segments

Above chart courtesy of Ericsson.

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T-Mo has wireless networks to meet all of the above IoT market segmants.  In particular, NB-IoT, 4G-LTE, and (soon) 5G.

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Challenges to overcome for Massive IoT:

  • Support billions of devices at scale (that includes provisioning and (re) configuration).
  • Long battery life (via low power consumption of devices/things)
  • Coverage enhancements
  • Global reach

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NB-IoT meets the requirements for Massive IoT:

Operates in guard bands of T-Mobile’s LTE network. [2]

Wide range of devices to be connected to the Internet using existing mobile networks (rather then new network infrastructure).

Key benefits include:  better battery life (again via low power consumption for connectivity), cheaper device costs ($5 certified NB-IoT module is now available), optimized data usage, reduced IP header and ability to transmit/receive non-IP data (which results in 30% to 40% less data transmission than if traditional IP was used), enhanced security via GSMA standards, licensed spectrum (no interference),, SIM based, and encryption.

Balaji said: “Improved network coverage is achieved via repetitions, which are used to enhance coverage.”  [3.]

Note 2. NB-IoT can also be implemented in “standalone” for deployments in dedicated spectrum.

Note 3. From an IEEE published paper titled: Enhancing Coverage in Narrow Band-IoT Using Machine Learning:

NB-IoT needs only a small portion of the existing available cellular spectrum to operate without interfering with it. Hence, NB-IoT provides more reliability and more quality of service (QoS) as it operates in regulated spectrum. Moreover, NB-IoT uses existing cellular network infrastructure, which reduces the deployment costs.

However, since repeating transmission data and control signals has been selected as a major solution to enhance coverage of NB-IoT systems, this leads to reducing the system throughput and thereby a spectral efficiency loss.

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Here’s a comparison chart showing: 2G,  licensed spectrum NB-IoT vs unlicensed band Sigfox and LoRa (WAN):

Chart courtesy of T-Mobile USA

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Balaji highlighted several Massive IoT applications that could effectively  use NB-IoT for connectivity.  Those include: asset tracking, smart metering, smart lighting, equipment monitoring, smart packaging, and intelligent waste management.

In addition to the $5 NB-IoT modules now available Balaji revealed T-Mo has a $5/year NB-IoT service plan.  

T-Mo hosted the U.S.’ first NB-IoT Hackathon to develop IoT applications that would leverage NB-IoT as a viable wireless network.  Sensing the presene of forest fires was an example he provided.

T-Mo partnered with Twillio to get NB-IoT to market.  They created a new development kit that allowed Hackathon participants to access the NB-IoT network.  [4.]

Note 4.  More than 100 new and seasoned developers descended on T-Mobile HQ to help shape the future of NB-IoT at the Hackathon.  20 creative and unique IoT concepts for prospective IoT solutions emerged that could leverage the low cost and power efficiency of NB-IoT and its reliability over long distances.

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U.S. Carrier Comparison for NB-IoT Deployments:

T-Mobile launched its NB-IoT network last July. AT&T’s NB-IoT network went live two weeks ago. Sprint said it is testing NB-IoT technology, but it plans to merge with T-Mobile in the not-too-distant future so may not roll out its own NB-IoT offering.

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NB-IoT Chipset Forecast:

Research & Markets predicts the NB-IoT chipset market is expected to grow from USD 272 million in 2019 to USD 2,002 million by 2024 at a CAGR of 49.1%.

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References:

https://www.t-mobile.com/news/americas-first-narrowband-iot-network

https://iot.t-mobile.com/narrowband/

https://techblog.comsoc.org/2019/04/27/t-mobile-u-s-profit-beats-estimates-plan-to-launch-5g-on-600-mhz-in-2h-2019/

https://www.gsma.com/iot/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/NB-IoT_Deployment_Guide_v2_5Apr2018.pdf

https://iot.t-mobile.com/hackathon/

https://iot.t-mobile.com/wp-content/themes/T-Mobile/device_images/pdf_download/Whitepaper_NarrowBand_IoT_March2019.pdf

https://techblog.comsoc.org/2019/05/15/2019-iot-world-verizons-narrowband-iot-nb-iot-network-now-covers-92-of-u-s/

 

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