ZTE and China Telecom: 5G network test on a high speed train; Uplink enhancement FAST verification

5G network test on a high speed train:

ZTE and China Telecom have jointly launched the world’s first commercial 5G maglev (magnetic levitation) high-speed network test in Shanghai, China. The test measured communications within a train travelling at a maximum speed of 500KM/h. During the test, the 5G commercial terminal was stable and easy to support various high performance mobile broadband services, demonstrating that the 5G network can provide high-speed maglev trains with ideal broadband communications.

Shanghai Maglev is the world’s first maglev line for commercial operation and at present it is also the fastest commercial high-speed train. It has been a business card for Shanghai and even for China since its operation. Built by China Telecom and ZTE together, the 5G network uses a full set of ZTE 5G system equipment, perfectly enabling passengers to get high-speed data access on a quick journey and enjoy services like mobile working, video conferencing, HD/UHD video or interactive games, ensuring a brand-new communication experience.

Due to special scenario restrictions, providing high-quality network coverage for high-speed trains has always been a challenge for both operators and equipment vendors. When a 5G network is deployed in a higher frequency than 2G, 3G and 4G networks, the situation will be even less ideal. To solve these problems, ZTE and China Telecom have made breakthroughs in multiple aspects by constantly challenging the technical limits through technological discussions and tests. With proprietary doppler frequency shift channel compensation technology, wireless channel deterioration caused by high-speed movement is eliminated. The solution can support a moving speed of over 500 KM/h, meeting the speed requirements of various high-speed trains. Besides, Multi-RRU (Remote Radio Unit) combination can realize single cell 6-12km belt shape coverage, reduce 90 percent of inter-cell handover and ensure continuous and stable access. Compared with the traditional 2T2R solution, ZTE is the first to introduce 8T8R RRU for high-speed railway coverage in the 5G industry. Multi-channel equipment, combined with 5G featured channels and beam scanning technology, can enhance the coverage significantly. It is also worth mentioning that the solution is implemented through technical innovation at the base station network side and has no special requirements for terminals.

The 5G network solution used for the Shanghai Maglev line can provide a complete set of network equipment for HSR (High Speed Rail) broadband communication. The radio units can support global mainstream 5G bands like N41 and N78. The top speed of Shanghai Maglev train is the highest among commercial trains in the world, which implies that this 5G network solution can be applied to various high-speed railways and maglev lines worldwide and has great market potential.

Over the years, ZTE and China Telecom have jointly provided broadband information channels for high-speed rail transit. LTE coverage has been deployed for multiple high-speed railway lines, which was highly appraised by users. Going forward, the two parties will continue to optimize the commercial performance of the 5G networks and steadily promote tests and verification according to specific service characteristics to facilitate ubiquitous high-speed broadband access.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

ZTE, China Telecom Partner to Build 5G-powered Industrial Service Platform

Uplink enhancement FAST verification:

On November 27th, ZTE announced a partnership with China Telecom to complete the verification of the industry’s first FAST (FDD Assists Super TDD) solution at 2.1GHz and 3.5GHz in Shenzhen, China.   Based on China Telecom’s uplink enhancement technology, this solution enables spectrum to reach its full potential by integrating time and frequency domains and constructing high-quality 5G networks with excellent performance and coverage.

Editor’s Note:  FDD=Frequency Division Duplexing;   TDD= Time Division Duplexing

China Telecom’s innovation of the “uplink enhancement” concept enhances the 5G uplink by using low frequency bands, such as 1.8GHz and 2.1GHz, to improve 5G network coverage and performance. For China Telecom’s existing 2.1GHz FDD and 3.5GHz TDD bands, ZTE and China Telecom has launched the uplink enhancement FAST (FDD Assists Super TDD) solution.
Based on the complementary qualities of TDD and FDD, in 3.5GHz weak uplink area, the terminal can transmit data at a high speed based on the 2.1 GHz frequency band. In addition, it can continue to make use of the advantages of 3.5GHz in bandwidth and large-scale array antennas to benefit from the downlink ultra-high rate.

In other areas with quality 3.5GHz coverage, the potential of 2.1GHz and 3.5GHz frequency bands can be fully utilized. This enables the terminal to transmit uplink data, in conventional UL CA mode, via three channels on two frequency bands at the same time. In the time domain, all the uplink frequency bands of FDD are fully utilized.
In addition, by deeply analyzing the features of frequency division duplex at 2.1GHz and time division duplex at 3.5GHz, the innovative CA with transmission mode switching in time domain, is based on multiple uplink carriers for time division transmission. This makes the full use of downlink timeslot resources.

To make the most effective use of the uplink resources of TDD and FDD, the terminals that only support two Tx-channel transmissions can flexibly switch between two channels of NR 3.5GHz and one channel of FDD 2.1GHz. At the same time, the downlink throughput can be improved in the FDD and TDD band aggregation mode, so that the best performance can be obtained in the uplink and downlink directions in the complicated wireless environment.

The test shows that, the uplink rate of a single user can be up to 40% higher than that of a single carrier (3.5GHz) when time division multiplexing (CA) is used. When conventional UL CA is used, the maximum increase of the single-user uplink rate is 60%. In addition, through high and low-frequency aggregation, the downlink user experience rate in both conditions can be increased by 20%, compared with a 3.5GHz single carrier.

In the future, ZTE will continue to partner with China Telecom to explore the application of new 5G technologies and functions in commercial networks, improve network quality, build 4G and 5G top-quality networks and provide better network services.
ZTE is a provider of advanced telecommunications systems, mobile devices, and enterprise technology solutions to consumers, operators, companies and public sector customers. As a part of ZTE’s strategy, the company is committed to providing customers with integrated end-to-end innovations to deliver excellence and values as the telecommunications and information technology sectors converge. Listed in the stock exchanges of Hong Kong and Shenzhen (H share stock code: 0763.HK / A share stock code: 000063.SZ), ZTE sells its products and services in more than 160 countries.

To date, ZTE has obtained 35 commercial 5G contracts in major markets, such as Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa (MEA). ZTE commits 10 percent of its annual revenues to research and development and takes leadership roles in international standard-setting organizations.

References:

https://www.zte.com.cn/global/about/news/20191129e1.html

https://www.zte.com.cn/global/about/news/20191127e1.html

ZTE, China Telecom and China Unicom complete 5G co-build, co-share verification

Posted in 5G Tagged

T-Mobile Netherlands: The Hague is ‘5G-ready’; Tests completed in 700 MHz, 3.5 GHz and 26 GHz bands

T-Mobile Netherlands announced on its website (in Dutch) that its mobile network in The Hague is now ‘fully equipped for 5G’ and will be ready to offer city-wide access to 5G services ‘immediately’ after the upcoming frequency auction expected by spring 2020.

Technical testing of the 5G infrastructure in the Hague has been completed using experimental frequency permits for the 700 MHz, 3.5 GHz and 26 GHz bands.

“Various innovative 5G-IoT applications in the field of care, safety and mobility will be realized in the coming period,” T-Mobile said.

5G_Press_Release_NL

As noted above, T-Mobile plans to participate in the Netherlands spectrum auction next Spring, and assuming it acquires the necessary spectrum, it will then open up access then to the 5G network within the entire country. That would enable T-Mobile to create a national 5G network in 2020, leaping ahead of rival KPN. A quick roll-out of 5G was one of the promises made by T-Mobile as part of its takeover of Tele2 Netherlands at the start of this year.

The global network operator has been working with the municipality of The Hague to prepare for the 5G launch. At its Living Lab Scheveningen, T-Mobile has various projects underway with local partners in the health, security and mobility sectors. These are expected to help develop general business cases for 5G applications.

The European Commission has called for each EU country to have at least one 5G city in 2020. T-Mobile has upgraded its network throughout the city. KPN also announced recently that The Hague is the first city with its new radio network from Huawei. This means KPN also will be able to start 5G quickly there, once the 700 MHz band is available.

References:

https://newsroom.t-mobile.nl/netwerk-den-haag-als-eerste-in-nederland-klaar-voor-5g/

https://www.telecompaper.com/news/t-mobile-says-network-ready-to-launch-5g-in-the-hague–1318043

 

SK Telecom Selects Ericsson 5G Packet Core (3GPP Release 16- 5GC)

SK Telecom has selected Ericsson to deliver a Cloud Packet Core for its 5G network. Ericsson says its Cloud Packet Core (part of the company’s Cloud Core portfolio) helps service providers to smoothly migrate to 5G Core (5GC) stand-alone architecture.

Author’s Note:

Please see below for more information on 3GPP 5GC which is part of Release 16 and as yet has not been submitted to either ITU-R or ITU-T for IMT 2020 mobile packet core.  There seems to be no independent work on a 5G mobile packet core within ITU, which is evidently waiting anxiously for 3GPP Release 16 to be completed and forwarded to various ITU-R WPs and ITU-T Study Groups.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Ericsson’s Cloud Packet Core is at the business end of mobile broadband and IoT networks. It creates value, visibility and control of traffic and applications by determining the optimal quality of a service, then enforcing it through appropriate policy.

Jung Chang-kwan, Vice President and Head of Infra Engineering Group, SK Telecom, says: “By utilizing Ericsson’s Cloud Packet Core network solution, which realizes simplified network operations, we will unleash the full potential of new 5G-enabled use cases with greater efficiency.”

Jan Karlsson, Senior Vice President and Head of Digital Services, Ericsson, says: “This deal, and the opportunity to work with SK Telecom’s Network Functions Virtualization Infrastructure (NFVI), has put us in the ideal position to further strengthen their 5G network. Delivering our Cloud Packet Core solution will positively impact SK Telecom’s network operations and will reinforce Ericsson’s position as a leader in 5G core.”

SK Telecom switched on its commercial 5G network in December 2018 after selecting Ericsson as one of its primary 5G vendors. Previously, Ericsson provided radio access network (RAN) products, including mid-band Massive MIMO.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3GPP 5GC (the only specification for a 5G mobile packet core):

The 5GC (5G packet Core), specified in 3GPP TS 23.501: System architecture for the 5G System (5GS); Stage 2, will be part of 3GPP Release 16, which won’t be completed till June 2020 at the earliest.

3GPP’s 5G System architecture is defined to support data connectivity and services enabling deployments to use techniques such as e.g. Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networking. The 5G System architecture shall leverage service-based interactions between Control Plane (CP) Network Functions where identified. Some key principles and concept are to:

–     Separate the User Plane (UP) functions from the Control Plane (CP) functions, allowing independent scalability, evolution and flexible deployments e.g. centralized location or distributed (remote) location.

–     Modularize the function design, e.g. to enable flexible and efficient network slicing.

–     Wherever applicable, define procedures (i.e. the set of interactions between network functions) as services, so that their re-use is possible.

–     Enable each Network Function and its Network Function Services to interact with other NF and its Network Function Services directly or indirectly via a Service Communication Proxy if required. The architecture does not preclude the use of another intermediate function to help route Control Plane messages (e.g. like a DRA).

–     Minimize dependencies between the Access Network (AN) and the Core Network (CN). The architecture is defined with a converged core network with a common AN – CN interface which integrates different Access Types e.g. 3GPP access and non-3GPP access.

–     Support a unified authentication framework.

–     Support “stateless” NFs, where the “compute” resource is decoupled from the “storage” resource.

–     Support capability exposure.

–     Support concurrent access to local and centralized services. To support low latency services and access to local data networks, UP functions can be deployed close to the Access Network.

–     Support roaming with both Home routed traffic as well as Local breakout traffic in the visited PLMN.

The 5G architecture is defined as service-based and the interaction between network functions is represented in the following two ways:

–     A service-based representation, where network functions (e.g. AMF) within the Control Plane enables other authorized network functions to access their services. This representation also includes point-to-point reference points where necessary.

–     A reference point representation, shows the interaction exist between the NF services in the network functions described by point-to-point reference point (e.g. N11) between any two network functions (e.g. AMF and SMF).

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

GSMA’s Position on 5GC:

The network evolution from 4G-LTE mobile packet core (EPC) to 5G Core (5GC) plays a central role in creating a powerful network platform that is capable of being exposed and automated for service providers.

5GC has been designed from its inception to be “cloud native,” inheriting many of the technology solutions used in cloud computing and with virtualization at its core.  Virtualization of network functions enables  5GC to be redesigned and become open and flexible enough to meet the diversity of service and business requirement in 5G era.

5GC will also offer superior network slicing and QoS features. Another important characteristic is the separation of the control plane and user plane that besides adding flexibility in connecting the users also allows an easier way to support a multitude of access technologies, better support for network slicing and edge computing.

5GC proposes a service based architecture  (SBA), which provides unprecedented efficiency and flexibility for the network.  SBA is an architectural for building system based on fine-grained, interaction of loosely coupled and autonomous components called services. This architecture model is chosen to take full advantage of the latest virtualization and software technologies.

Service-based architectures have been in use in the software industry to improve the modularity of products. A software product can be broken down into communicating services. With this approach, the developers can mix and match services from different vendors into a single product.

Compared to the previous generation reference point architecture as EPC, the elements of service based architecture are defined to be the NF (network functions), which interconnect with the rest network functions across a single API calling interface and provide the authorized services to them. Network repository functions (NRF) allows every network function to discover the services offered by other network functions. A service is an atomized capability in a 5G network, with the characteristics of high-cohesion, loose-coupling, and independent management from other services. This allows individual services to be updated independently with minimal impact to other services and deployed on demand. A service is managed based on the service framework including service registration, service authorization, and service discovery. It provides a comprehensive and highly automated management mechanism implemented by NRF, which greatly reduces the complexity of network maintenance. A service will interact with other services in a light-weight manner, e.g. API invocation.

Virtualization and cloud computing have resulted in lowering the cost of computing by pooling resources in shared data centers.

  • 5G core networks can be shrunk in size by using virtualization. Varies components of the core network can be run as communicating virtual machines.
  • Moving the control plane of the 5G core network to a cloud provider lowers the deployment cost.

The 5G core is a mesh of interconnected services as shown in the figure below:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Ericsson Addendum:

According to Ericsson’s latest Mobility Reportpublished earlier this week, global 5G subscriptions will exceed 2.6bn within the next six years and by that time Ericsson predicts that 5G will cover 65 percent of the world. It also believes that total mobile subscriptions, including to previous generation networks, will reach 8.9bn from 8bn over the next six years. More than quarter of the global subscriptions will be 5G by 2025 and will account for around 45 percent of worldwide mobile data traffic.

Additionally, Ericsson has also announced its partnership with NVIDIA in order to develop technologies that will enable communication service providers to build virtualized 5G radio access networks, which will boost the introduction of new AI and IoT-based services. The ultimate focus will be to commercialize virtualized RAN technologies to offer radio networks with flexibility and ability to enter the market in a shorter time for new services like VR, AR and gaming.

References:

https://www.ericsson.com/en/press-releases/2019/11/ericssons-cloud-packet-core-to-strengthen-sk-telecoms-5g-network2

https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Road-to-5G-Introduction-and-Migration_FINAL.pdf

https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/opb/tut/T-TUT-HOME-2018-2-PDF-E.pdf

https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/23_series/23.501/

https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/digital-services/cloud-core/cloud-packet-core

https://www.sdxcentral.com/articles/news/ericsson-and-verizon-claim-worlds-first-cloud-native-tech-on-live-core/2019/07/

https://medium.com/5g-nr/5g-service-based-architecture-sba-47900b0ded0a

 

Siemens & Qualcomm create private 5G network for industrial applications

Siemens and Qualcomm have set up a private standalone 5G wireless network for industrial applications in a test center in Nuremberg, Germany.  The test center network uses 5G NR (data plane) over the 3.7-3.8 GHz band to connect Simatic control systems and IO devices.  It enables Siemens and Qualcomm Technologies to test technologies, solve problems, and come up with solutions for the future of private wireless applications in industrial settings. Qualcomm Technologies set up 5G industrial test devices along with a 5G standalone test network that includes a 5G core network and 5G base station with remote radio head. Siemens provided the actual industrial setup including Simatic control systems and IO devices.

“We are excited to announce our 5G private network proof-of-concept collaboration project with Siemens. This project will provide invaluable real-world learnings that both companies can apply to future deployments and marks an important key milestone as 5G moves into industrial automation,” said Enrico Salvatori, Senior Vice President, Qualcomm Europe, Inc. & President, Qualcomm Europe/MEA. “Combining our 5G connectivity capabilities with Siemens’ deep industry know-how will help us deploy technologies, refine solutions, and work to make the smart industrial future a reality.”

Using the network in the test center, vehicle makers can see automated guided vehicles interact live. The intention is to “drive forward the development and technical implementation of private 5G networks in the industrial sector,” said Eckard Eberle, CEO of process automation at Siemens.

In the course of this joint research effort at the Siemens Automotive Test Center, currently available industrial technologies such as OPC UA and Profinet will be tested and evaluated – technologies that require a 5G private network in order to work. In Germany, private networks can use the local broadband spectrum from 3.7-3.8 GHz, which has been reserved for industrial usage in local deployments. These private networks allow industrial sites to control and manage their own networks as they see fit, allowing for high reliability, low latency, and the ability to reconfigure the network to suit changing needs while at the same time keeping data onsite for added security.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Qualcomm Technologies and Siemens have a longstanding technical collaboration focused on cooperation in wireless technologies. This has resulted in over 15 years of success and the development of Siemens’ unique Scalance portfolio of industrial wireless products. With Qualcomm Technologies’ leading expertise in 5G technologies, this collaboration continues to evolve —leading into the first 5G private standalone network in an industrial environment using the 3.7-3.8GHz band. This allows solutions to be tested and developed which the industry will be able to use with the upcoming Release 16 of the 5G standard.

The two  companies are also exhibiting elsewhere in Nuremberg, Germany at the Smart Production Solutions (SPS) 2019 conference that continues this week.  At SPS, Qualcomm joined with Bosch Rexroth to showcase time-synchronized industrial devices over a live 5G network.

Time-sensitive networking (TSN) over 5G will provide greater flexibility for factory operations, said Yongbin Wei, vice president of engineering at Qualcomm. The company is planning to demonstrate full 5G TSN in the next 3GPP release 16 in 2020.

Bosch Rexroth makes a ctrlX Automation platform so that industrial machine makers can pick between real-time wired industrial Ethernet or real-time 5G wireless as needed, without having to change the machine application.

Elsewhere at SPS, STMicroelectronics and maxon showed off a $129 industrial servo control development kit for drives, robotics and automation. Called the Evalkit-Robot-1, it is designed to help users work with precise positioning and motion in servo drives and robotics. A maxon 100-watt motor with a built-in encoder is included in the kit as well as an intelligent three-phase motor controller with an inverter stage that includes ST power transistors.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

The one area of the globe currently leading the way with 5G is Europe, said Sebastiano Di Filippo, senior director, business development for Qualcomm Technologies Europe. As an example of Europe’s advanced activity in this area, he noted that the European Commission recently announced that it is “harmonizing its 26GHz radio spectrum band for 5G.”

As for 5G’s application in industry, Di Filippo said “real time computing at the edge is a major application for 5G.” With this in mind, specific factory applications Qualcomm is investigating for 5G include wearable devices, automated guided vehicle, robots, wireless edge analytics, sensors, and computer vision.

References:

https://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=250700

https://www.fierceelectronics.com/electronics/siemens-qualcomm-showcase-private-5g-net-for-industrial-apps

https://www.automationworld.com/factory/blog/21103544/bosch-rexroth-and-siemens-collaborate-with-qualcomm-on-5g

 

Analysis: Intel and MediaTek partnership to make 5G PCs; Qualcomm competition?

Summary:

Intel and MediaTek are partnering to make cellular-connected personal computers.  Intel will “define” a 5G PC system spec (“Intel will define a 5G solution specification focused on deployment in key laptop segments”) while MediaTek will develop the 5G cellular chip for those PCs.  The first products are targeting availability in early 2021. Dell and HP are expected to be among the first OEMs to deliver laptops enabled with Intel and MediaTek’s 5G solution.

Intel also will help make sure the 5G chip works properly and will help computer makers integrate their processor into PCs (“Intel will also provide optimization and validation across the platform and lend system integration and co-engineering support to further enable its OEM partners.”).

The partnership is also expected to increase the global presence for MediaTek’s 5G modems, which are mainly sold to Chinese smartphone makers.  The 5G PC chip is based in part on MediaTek’s Helio M70 5G modem, introduced earlier this year.  From the Intel announcement:

“5G is poised to unleash a new level of computing and connectivity that will transform the way we interact with the world. This partnership with MediaTek brings together industry leaders with deep engineering, system integration and connectivity expertise to deliver 5G experiences on the next generation of the world’s best PCs.”
–Gregory Bryant, Intel executive vice president and general manager of the Client Computing Group

The partnership helps MediaTek break into a bigger U.S. market and prevents Intel from being shut out of 5G-connected PCs. It also helps Intel defends one of its most important markets: computers. It has long made the majority of chips that go into PCs, but rival Qualcomm has been gaining market traction with its Snapdragon SoCs that were originally designed for smartphones. Qualcomm’s SoCs generally provide better battery life and connectivity that are not traditionally found in computers.

5g 2x1

Image courtesy of Intel

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The two companies are also working with Fibocom on the development of M.2 modules optimized for integration with Intel client platforms. As the first module vendor for this solution, Fibocom will provide operator certification and regulatory support, as well as lead 5G M.2 module manufacturing, sales and distribution.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Analysis:

Since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007, people have started to spend more time on their phones and less time on their PCs. They also hold onto computers longer than their mobile devices. The answer for Microsoft and traditional PC makers has been to turn computers into something more like phones. They’ve been working with Qualcomm on such devices for a couple of years, and Intel, the world’s biggest PC chipmaker, has started to jump into the fray.

Intel earlier this year introduced its Project Athena initiative, a multiple-company, multiple-year effort to make PCs more like computers. Devices are meant to wake instantly, sport brighter screens for outdoor use and have battery life that lasts all day. Project Athena laptops also need to be able to complete a biometric login process in a second or less after a laptop lid is opened, and Athena gets an additional second to connect to Wi-Fi. The first devices are due this year, but they’re not cellular-enabled.  For that, users have to turn to Qualcomm-powered PCs.

Last year, Qualcomm unveiled its first processor designed specifically for computers, called the Snapdragon 8cx Compute Platform. Qualcomm partnered with Lenovo to introduce its the Snapdragon 8cx 5G compute platform in late May this year. “Consumers can expect more to come from Lenovo and Qualcomm in early 2020,” the Qualcomm said. The chip is powerful but also power efficient, giving users multiple days of battery life on a single charge.

Many PC makers have started using Qualcomm chips. That includes the Samsung’s Galaxy Book S, which was unveiled in August and runs on the 8cx. The ultrathin, ultralight laptop has a 13.3-inch touchscreen and sports 23 hours of battery life. It also has built-in LTE.

Intel, on the other hand, struggled to make a cost competitive 5G chip for Apple’s iPhones and was losing lots of money on that project.   it exited the cellular modem business After Apple and Qualcomm reached a multiyear chip supply agreement in April, Intel exited the 5G smartphone modem business.  This past July, Apple and Intel jointly announced that Apple planned to buy Intel’s smartphone modem business for $1 billion. The deal likely gives Apple access to some of Intel’s work on 5G technology mostly from the latter’s acquisition of Infineon cellular division.

There are only four companies in the world making 5G chips: Qualcomm, MediaTek, Samsung and Huawei while only the first two sell into the merchant semiconductor market. Samsung and Huawei largely only use their 5G chips in their own devices (though a new phone from Vivo will use Samsung’s Exynos 5G modem).

MediaTek predominantly supplies modems to Asian (mostly China) handset makers. Its first 5G modem chip/chip set won’t work on any of the 5G networks that have been deployed in the U.S.

Intel and MediaTek now hope their efforts will be enough to fend off Qualcomm and attract PC makers.  Other spin offs are also possible, depending on the success of this initial effort.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Qualcomm Competition or 5G Monopoly?

Qualcomm has supplied 5G modems for the vast majority of 5G smartphones sold this year. Intel wouldn’t partner with Qualcomm, a company it views as its chief rival in the semiconductor business.  Michael Chertoff, former Head of U.S. Homeland Security penned an oped in yesterday’s Wall Street Journal that Qualcomm’s Monopoly Imperils National Security.  He wrote:

A monoculture technology system likewise poses substantial risks. If there is some critical flaw in the single system on which the U.S. is dependent, its failure would be catastrophic. These technical vulnerabilities are especially risky in security-sensitive industries such as telecommunications. American reliance on a single chip provider creates an inviting target for adversaries, who would need to find and exploit only one vulnerability to execute a destructive cyberattack.

In the Pentagon’s view, maintaining the company’s economic health is also essential because it is a critical player in the competition with China to develop 5G technology. To be sure, it’s important to support the viability of U.S. firms that can compete with China on 5G, but this hardly justifies the risks of a mono-culture in the defense-industrial base.

Further, the argument mistakenly links two national-security issues in an artificial way. Qualcomm doesn’t need protection in the wireless chipset market to strengthen its competitive edge in the 5G race. To the contrary, it has every incentive to develop leading 5G technologies even in the absence of protection in the chip market.

In the technology race against China, the U.S. should prefer to let competition drive innovation rather than support exclusive national champions. Apart from the economic inefficiency, a single-source national champion creates an unacceptable risk to American security—artificially concentrating vulnerability in a single point. The government’s argument in support of Qualcomm isn’t prudent, and if courts accept it, the result would be a self-inflicted wound to U.S. national interests. We need competition and multiple providers, not a potentially vulnerable technological monoculture.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

References:

https://newsroom.intel.com/news/intel-mediatek-partner-deliver-5g-pc/

https://www.cnet.com/news/intel-mediatek-partners-to-make-5g-chips-for-pcs/

https://www.lightreading.com/mobile/5g/intel-partners-with-mediatek-for-5g-pc-chips/d/d-id/755933?

 

2019 World 5G Convention in Beijing: China has built 113,000 5G base stations; 130,000 by the end of 2019

China secured 870,000 5G mobile subscribers in just 20 days after the country kicked off commercialization of the (pre-IMT 2020 standard) 5G mobile technology on October 31st.  About 113,000 5G base stations have already entered service and the number will hit 130,000 by the end of this year, marking China one of the world’s largest 5G deployments, the ministry said.

As China continues to expand its 5G market, it has never set limits on what percentage of the domestic market can be supplied and equipped by foreign tech brands, the nation’s top industry regulator said on Thursday, November 21st.  Miao Wei, minister of industry and information technology, said the world is at a tipping point for large-scale 5G network construction, and it is wrong for any country to use the excuse of cybersecurity risks to practice trade protectionism.

“No country should ban a company in its 5G network rollout based on unproved allegations of cybersecurity risks,” Miao said at the opening ceremony of the 2019 World 5G Convention in Beijing. The event runs through Saturday.  China highly values cybersecurity and deeply understands that ensuring cybersecurity is a prerequisite for better growth of new-generation wireless technology, he added.  “China sticks to transparent, equal and fair principles when purchasing 5G telecom equipment. We never preset market shares for domestic and foreign enterprises,” Miao said.  “China welcomes global companies and research institutions to jointly build a 5G network and share the benefits of its development,” he added.

As the top industry regulator, the ministry will oversee Chinese telecom carriers’ bidding processes, and it encourages competition, Miao said, adding that delivering quality 5G products and services is the only way for companies to increase their market share in China.

The minister also called for international cooperation to accelerate the global rollout of 5G, highlighting the need to establish an international mechanism for recognizing 5G-related patents in a bid to build unified global standards.

Ke Ruiwen, chairman of China Telecom, said the telecom operator has established close ties with foreign companies and international associations to promote maturity of the 5G industry chain.

Foreign telecom equipment makers including Nokia and Ericsson as well as US chip giants such as Intel and Qualcomm have actively participated in China’s 5G testing and trial operations. Now they are scrambling to tap into opportunities in the country, which has built the world’s largest 4G network and is eager to do the same in the 5G era.

Frank Meng, chairman of Qualcomm China, said the company is pleased to join hands with industry partners to accelerate development of 5G in China.

Qualcomm has partnered with Chinese smartphone makers to bring affordable and quality 5G handsets to the global market. Xiaomi Corp, for instance, said it will unveil at least 10 5G smartphones next year.

Nokia China President Markus Borchert said earlier this year that cooperation with multinational companies is highly regarded by the Chinese government. This makes the Finnish company more confident in the healthy, steady and sustainable development of China’s 5G industry, Borchert added.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

China is set to become the world’s largest 5G market by 2025, with 460 million 5G users, according to the Global System for Mobile Communications Association.

The number of 5G users in China is expected to be higher than that in Europe (205 million) and the United States (187 million) combined by that time, the association said.

Raymond Wang, partner with global consultancy firm Roland Berger, highlighted China’s commitment to further deepen opening-up and said Chinese companies have the confidence to compete with their foreign counterparts on the global stage.

References:

http://www.china.org.cn/business/2019-11/22/content_75434545.htm

http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-11/21/c_138572698.htm

WRC 19 Wrap-up: Additional spectrum allocations agreed for IMT-2020 (5G mobile)

The World Radiocommunication Conference 2019 (WRC-19) concluded today as agreements signed by some 3,400 delegates from around 165 Member States were enshrined in the Final Acts of the Radio Regulations, the international treaty governing the global use of radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits.

WRC-19 identified additional globally harmonized (millimetre wave) frequency bands for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT), including IMT-2020 (otherwise known as 5G mobile), facilitating diverse usage scenarios for enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine-type communications and ultra-reliable and low-latency communications. This will hopefully unlock a host of applications facilitating Intelligent Transport Systems, creating smart cities and making communities more sustainable while allowing for effective climate action, improved health care, sustainable agricultural practices, and greater energy efficiency.

New Resolutions approved at WRC-19 noted that ultra-low latency (pending 3GPP Release 16) and very high bit-rate applications of IMT 2020 will require larger contiguous blocks of spectrum than those available in frequency bands that had previously been identified for use by administrations wishing to implement IMT. They also pointed that harmonized worldwide bands for IMT are desirable in order to facilitate global roaming and the benefits of economies of scale.

Additional bands identified to enable standardized 5G (IMT 2020) deployment:

While identifying the frequency bands 24.25-27.5 GHz, 37-43.5 GHz, 45.5-47 GHz, 47.2-48.2 and 66-71 GHz for the deployment of 5G networks, WRC-19 also took measures to ensure an appropriate protection of the Earth Exploration Satellite Services, including meteorological and other passive services in adjacent bands.

In total, 17.25 GHz of spectrum has been identified for IMT by the Conference, in comparison with 1.9 GHz of bandwidth available before WRC-19. Out of this number, 14.75 GHz of spectrum has been harmonized worldwide, reaching 85% of global harmonization.

In addition, WRC-19 has also defined a plan of studies to identify frequencies for new components of 5G. As an example, to facilitate mobile connectivity by High Altitude IMT Base Stations (HIBS). HIBS may be used as a part of terrestrial IMT networks to provide mobile connectivity in underserved areas where it is difficult to be covered by ground-based IMT base stations at a reasonable cost.

IMT-2020, the name used in ITU for the standards of 5G, is expected to continue to be developed from 2020 onwards, with 5G trials and commercial activities already underway to assist in evaluating the candidate technologies and frequency bands that may be used for this purpose.

The first full-scale commercial deployments for 5G are expected sometime after IMT-2020 specifications are in force.

ITU will continue to work towards providing stable international regulations, sufficient spectrum and suitable standards for IMT-2020 and the core network to enable successful 5G deployments at the regional and international levels.

Next steps:

An overall presentation of WRC-19 results is still under preparation, but it is already evident that ITU is facilitating the development of 5G around the world.

In parallel, the ITU group responsible for IMT-2020 or 5G is continuing the evaluation of the proposed technologies that will allow network operators to offer 5G performances to their users for the next decade.

This evaluation will be completed in early February 2020 and will be followed by the finalization of the IMT-2020 standards.

ITU will make sure that the standards supporting all 5G applications will be in place in 2020 for the benefit of the entire telecommunication community.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Separately at WRC 19, protections were accorded to the Earth-exploration satellite service (EESS) as well as meteorological and other passive services in adjacent bands, such as the space research service (SRS) to ensure that space-based monitoring of the earth and its atmosphere remain unhindered. Satellite services supporting meteorology and climatology that aim to safeguard human life and natural resources will be protected from harmful radio-frequency interference, as will systems used by radio astronomers for deep space exploration.

Steps were also taken to ensure that radio astronomy stations would be protected from any harmful radio interference from other space stations or satellite systems in orbit.
“WRC-19 paves the way for new, more innovative ways to connect the world using both terrestrial and space-based communication technologies,” said ITU Secretary-General Houlin Zhao. “As leading edge broadband technology manifests itself in new industrial developments, people in the remotest areas will also get better and more affordable access.
“The hard won agreements at WRC-19 will favourably impact the lives of billions of people around the world, creating a digital landscape for sustainable growth and development,” said Mr Mario Maniewicz, Director of the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau. “The achievements of WRC-19 in enabling new communication technologies and the protection of existing services will be reflected in the continuous growth of the trillion dollar telecommunication and ICT industry.”
The deliberations at WRC-19 were steered by conference Chairman Amr Badawi with assistance from six Vice-Chairmen: Mr Kyu Jin Wee (Republic of Korea), Mr Tareq Al Awadhi (United Arab Emirates), Mr Peter Zimri (South Africa), Mr Alexander Kühn (Germany), Ms Grace Koh (United States) and Mr Sergey Pastukh (Russian Federation).
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
KEY OUTCOMES OF WRC-19:
  • Additional bands for IMT identified in the 24.25-27.5 GHz, 37-43.5 GHz, 45.5-47 GHz, 47.2-48.2 and 66-71 GHz bands, facilitating development of fifth generation (5G) mobile networks.
  • Earth exploration-satellite (EESS) service – Protection accorded to EESS with the possibility of providing worldwide primary allocation in the frequency band 22.55-23.15 GHz in order to allow its use for satellite tracking, telemetry and control.
  • Non-Geostationary Satellites – Regulatory procedures established for non-geostationary satellite constellations in the fixed-satellite service, opening the skies to next-generation communication capabilities. Mega-constellations of satellites consisting of hundreds to thousands of spacecraft in low-Earth orbit are becoming a popular solution for global telecommunications, as well as remote sensing, space and upper atmosphere research, meteorology, astronomy, technology demonstration and education.
  • Regulatory changes introduced to facilitate rational, efficient and economical use of radio frequencies and associated orbits, including the geostationary-satellite orbit.
  • High-altitude platform stations (HAPS) – Additional frequency bands Identified for High Altitude Platform Systems – radios on aerial platforms hovering in the stratosphere – to facilitate telecommunications within a wide coverage area below for affordable broadband access in rural and remote areas.
  • WiFi networks – Regulatory provisions revised to accommodate both indoor and outdoor usage and the growth in demand for wireless access systems, including RLANs for end-user radio connections to public or private core networks, such as WiFi, while limiting their interference into existing satellite services.
  • Railway radiocommunication systems between train and trackside (RSTT) – Resolution approved on Railway radiocommunication systems to facilitate the deployment of railway train and trackside systems to meet the needs of a high-speed railway environment in particular for train radio applications for improved railway traffic control, passenger safety and security for train operations.
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – ITU Recommendation (standard) approved to integrate ICTs in evolving Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to connect vehicles, improve traffic management and assist in safer driving.
  • Broadcasting-satellite service (BSS) – Protection of frequency assignments, providing a priority mechanism for developing countries to regain access to spectrum orbit resources.
  • Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) – Expanded coverage and enhanced capabilities for GMDSS.

Addendum:  World Radiocommunication Conference 2019 (WRC-19) Provisional Final Acts

https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-r/opb/act/R-ACT-WRC.13-2019-PDF-E.pdf

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

References:

WRC-19 identifies additional frequency bands for 5G

https://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/wrc-19/Pages/default.aspx

https://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/Pages/2019-PR24.aspx

Samsung makes major progress in 5G network equipment sales; seeks to leverage first mover advantage to lead in 5G

Overview:

Telecommunications network equipment sold to wireless network providers has always been a minor part of Samsung’s business, especially compared to memory chips and mobile phones – two sectors where it leads the world (also #1 in total semiconductor revenue and #1 or #2 silicon foundry vs TSMC).  Last year, Samsung held only a 6.6% share of the overall telecom equipment market, compared with Huawei’s 31%.  It ranked fifth in global sales of wireless base stations.

In fact,  the South Korean conglomerate’s information technology and mobile communications business declined 7% last year to $87 billion, of which an estimated $85 billion was mobile device sales and $2 billion was network infrastructure. SK Telecom is probably Samsung’s biggest customer for network gear. In the U.S., Samsung sells its 5G network equipment (base stations/small cells) to AT&T, Verizon and Sprint (Samsung is also a part of the Sprint Spark initiative).

Yet this year, Samsung is benefiting from a first-mover advantage in with South Korea deploying nationwide commercial (pre-standard) 5G networks in April and leading the world in 5G subscribers.  So the company’s initial 5G success story relies on its dominant positions in the South Korean and U.S. markets, where 5G services were launched earlier than in other regions.  RCR wireless said this past April that Samsung Electronics had sold 53,000 5G base stations to Korean carriers.

The need for 5G

Samsung also hopes to capitalize on Huawei’s U.S. ban and U.S. government attempts to bar it from other countries 5G networks.  Yet despite Washington’s ban, the Chinese tech giant has so far won fifty (or more) 5G contracts from countries including Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Finland and even South Korea, according to a media report that quoted Ryan Ding, the president of Huawei’s Carrier Business Group.  Huawei is also extremely well positioned thanks to the launch of Chinese 5G services early this month.  It offers both price competitiveness and a technological edge, according to network operators that have tested Huawei’s gear.  It also is the holder of the largest number of telecommunications equipment patents.

Kim Young-ki, the head of Samsung Electronics’ network business division, said last June that Samsung would capture more than 20% of the global 5G equipment market by 2020. And since Kim’s statement, Samsung has made major inroads.  It now supplies 5G equipment to two of the three of the world’s first 5G service providers, SK Telecom and KT, both in South Korea, where (as noted above) nationwide 5G services began in April. Samsung also supplied the first 5G-enabled smartphones.

Beyond South Korea, Samsung provides 5G gear to AT&T, Verizon and Sprint in the U.S., which both run limited 5G services. Test supplies of Samsung 5G equipment have been provided to Telefonica of Germany, as well as AT&T and T-Mobile of the US.  However, Samsung declined to comment to Asia Times on how those tests are proceeding.

In October, Samsung won a contract to supply 5G mobile network equipment to KDDI, Japan’s second-largest telecommunications company. It did not reveal the details of the deal, but local media reports said the 5G equipment supplied by Samsung was expected to be worth US$2 billion over the next five years.

Also in October, Samsung showcased advanced LTE and 5G technologies used in combination in dual-connected mode networks with Reliance Jio Infocomm of India at the India Mobile Congress 2019. Experts say India is not ready to launch 5G services, but Samsung is keen to pave the way in cooperation with Jio.

“Samsung has been working in close cooperation with Jio to bring a digital transformation including transition to 4G throughout India for seven years,” Paul Kyungwhoon Cheun, Executive Vice-President and Head of Network Business at Samsung, said in a press release. “Samsung and Jio will continue to join forces in bringing next-generation innovation across the country, harnessing the full 5G potential in driving further growth of digital India.”

Samsung

According to the Ministry of Science and ICT of Korea, Samsung took 36% of global sales of 5G network equipment in the first quarter of this year – the top position – followed by Ericsson and Huawei, both with 28%, and Nokia with 14%.  That improvement illustrates how far Samsung Electronics has come in the 5G market.

“Now, Samsung is posting a higher 5G equipment market share than its competitors as only a few countries, such as Korea and the US, have commercialized 5G service,” an unnamed industry expert told Asia Times. “We need to see how Samsung performs in the future … it is not likely to maintain its current position as more and more countries commercialize 5G services.”  The expert added that 5G services will be launched in about 50 countries next year, creating new battlegrounds for the sector’s players to fight on.

Samsung’s 5G Future:

Gaining early traction in major markets is crucial for wireless network equipment makers.  “Telecommunication service providers tend to keep their relations with existing suppliers once their network is set,” Kim Jong-ki of the Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade told Asia Times. “It’s too early to speak of the future of Samsung’s 5G telecommunication business, but Samsung indeed has the potential to be a strong contender.

“Samsung’s participation in the world’s first commercialization of 5G network in Korea is a valuable asset for Samsung, and Samsung has R&D power and enough patents in the key area of 5G telecommunication – though its total number of patents does not match Huawei’s,” Kim added.

Pundits say that in addition to Samsung’s first-mover advantage, its position as an end-to-end 5G solution provider and its immunity to security concerns in the US are further strengths. Washington’s blacklisting of Huawei offers Samsung a particularly juicy opportunity to seize a major bridgehead in the world’s largest economy.

“Samsung’s telecommunications equipment business is expected to perform better in the 5G era [than in previous eras] as it took the initiative in the newly growing 5G market, as seen in its global market share in the first quarter of this year,” the expert said. “Now, Samsung’s position looks different from that in the 4G gear market.”

Moreover, there appears to be backing for aggressive moves into the sector at the very pinnacle of the electronics conglomerate – a critical factor in Korea’s family-dominated business groups.

“Samsung’s changed stance on the telecommunication equipment business is also expected to enhance competitiveness,” the expert added. “Lee Jae-yong, the heir of the Samsung business group, has shown a will to promote the business.”

Samsung states on its website:

While the IMT-2020 goals play a pivotal role in directing research and development, 5G networks will need to go far beyond numerical improvements in order to meet the requirements of evolving network usage that we are seeing today. Indeed, while 5G networks will enable the delivery of some very impressive services to the traditional mobile subscriber, dozens of previously unconnected industries are now incubating ideas that will completely transform the role of mobile telecommunications in today’s society.

In order to support these services, 5G radio access networks (5G RAN) will need to be flexible. They will need to be able to adapt to a wide range of different service requirements so that network and third party service providers alike can deploy new applications, services and devices seamlessly and sustainably. Through the evolution of the radio air interface, the implementation of ‘software-defined’ principles and more, the 5G RAN will enable transparent connectivity for a new generation of information-driven users and industries.

5G radio access deployments will be characterized by their highly dense, throughput focused and software-driven nature. Foremost among the differences between 5G and LTE will be the logical separation of each component of the 5G fNB (future NodeB). In particular, we will see the baseband split, with the lower layers of the 5G protocol stack merging with the radio unit to form a new element called the Access Unit (AU).

In an interview with an Ovum analyst, Samsung’s Dongsoo Park, PhD said:

“Having Korea as our home base affords us an incredible opportunity to commercialize the latest technology, which are reinforced by our current presence in the U.S., Japan, Europe, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Russia. Our recent collaboration with Jio India further promotes Samsung’s firm commitment to the infrastructure business.”

We couldn’t agree more and are eager to see if Samsung can leverage that first mover advantage and potential Huawei blacklisting to gain share in the 5G network infrastructure market.

References:

https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/11/article/samsung-takes-on-huawei-in-race-for-5g-dominance/

https://www.rcrwireless.com/20190410/5g/samsung-electronics-supplies-53000-5g-base-stations-korean-carriers

https://www.samsung.com/global/business/networks/insights/5g-radio-access/

 

U.S. Senators call for new 5G policy coordinator in Trump administration

The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) reports that a bipartisan coalition of eight senators is pressing the Trump administration to create a new White House position to coordinate policy on 5G wireless technology.  Citing a lack of “coherent national strategy,” the Republican and Democratic leadership of four Senate committees called for the designation of a “senior individual focused solely on coordinating and leading the nation’s effort to develop and deploy future telecommunications technologies.” The eight senators said the role was vital to preventing the U.S. from falling behind on deploying the technology—seen as an economic and national security threat—while signaling to allies the seriousness of the administration’s commitment to the issue.

“While we appreciate the progress being made within and across departments and agencies, we are concerned that their respective approaches are not informed by a coherent national strategy,” the senators wrote in the letter, a copy of which was reviewed by The Wall Street Journal (see below for text of the entire letter). “In our view, the current national level approach to 5G comprises of a dispersed coalition of common concern, rather than a coordinated, inter-agency activity.”

The senators warned that without a point person focusing on 5G issues, federal agencies within the Trump administration would continue to work disjointedly and fail to identify “national authority and policy deficiencies that do not neatly fall into a single department or agency.”

“This fractured approach,” the letter added, “will not be sufficient to rise to the challenge the country faces.”

The letter was signed by Richard Burr (R., N.C.)  and Mark Warner (D., Va.), the leaders of the Senate Intelligence Committee; Ron Johnson (R., Wis.) and Gary Peters (D., Mich.), who lead the Senate Homeland Security Committee; James Risch (R., Idaho) and Robert Menendez, (D., N.J.), of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; and James Inhofe (R., Okla.) and Jack Reed (D., R.I.), of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

Image result for image of 5G coordinator

The Trump administration recently briefed the Senate committees on U.S. efforts to deploy 5G, according to the letter. A person familiar with the matter said the briefing took place Sept. 18, 2019.

The WSJ couldn’t immediately be determined whether the White House would consider the request from the coalition of senators. The Trump administration is currently overseeing an effort to reduce staff at the National Security Council, and has eliminated roles on the council in the past—such as cybersecurity coordinator—despite bipartisan opposition to the move.

For more information, write to Dustin Volz at [email protected] and Drew FitzGerald at [email protected]

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

U.S. Senator Jack Reed, the Ranking Member of the Armed Services Committee and a senior member of the Appropriations Committee, says it is disconcerting that the Trump Administration lacks a coherent 5G strategy.

Senator Reed, along with a bipartisan group of Senate leaders sent a letter to President Trump’s national security adviser, Robert O’Brien, urging him to name a senior coordinator for the effort to deploy 5G, and taking the Trump Administration to task for its “fractured approach” that “will not be sufficient to rise to the challenge the country faces.”

The letter, which was also signed by the Chairman and Ranking Members from Senate Armed Services; Foreign Relations; Homeland Security; and Intelligence Committees, stated: “Without a national strategy, facilitated by a common understanding of the geopolitical and technical impact of 5G and future telecommunications advancements, we expect each agency will continue to operate within its own mandate, rather than identifying national authority and policy deficiencies that do not neatly fall into a single department or agency.”

The bipartisan letter continues: “We would further urge you to designate a dedicated, senior individual focused solely on coordinating and leading the nation’s effort to develop and deploy future telecommunications technologies.”

The letter notes that China is stepping up efforts related to 5G technology and “China’s leadership, combined with the United States’ increased reliance on high-speed, reliable telecommunications services to facilitate both commerce and defense, poses a strategic risk for the country.”  However, to this point, the Trump Administration has not taken sufficient steps to address potential Chinese threats.

The Senators say that maintaining White House focus on 5G is especially important in light of last week’s decision to eliminate the emerging technologies directorate at the National Security Council.

In addition to Senator Reed, the letter was also signed by U.S. Senators Mark Warner (D-VA), Richard Burr (R-NC), Ron Johnson (R-WI), Gary Peters (D-MI), Jim Risch (R-ID), Bob Menendez (D-NJ), and Jim Inhofe (R-OK).

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Text of the letter is below:

November 18, 2019

Mr. Robert O’ Brien
Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington DC, 20006

Dear Mr. O’Brien,

Several leaders within the Executive Branch recently briefed the bipartisan leadership of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and the Senate Armed Services

Committee on the United States’ efforts to develop and deploy fifth generation (5G) telecommunications technologies.

As you may be aware, the United States and its allies are facing an unprecedented security challenge with the current marketplace of 5G technologies. While the United States has led in the development and deployment of previous telecommunications evolutions, 5G represents the first evolutionary step for which an authoritarian nation leads the marketplace for telecommunications solutions. China’s leadership, combined with the United States’ increased

reliance on high-speed, reliable telecommunications services to facilitate both commerce and defense, poses a strategic risk for the country. We cannot rely exclusively on defensive measures to solve or mitigate the issue, but rather we must shape the future of advanced telecommunications technology by supporting domestic innovation through meaningful investments, leveraging existing areas of U.S. strength, and bringing together like-minded allies

and private sector expertise through a sustained effort over the course of decades, not months. A challenge of this magnitude requires a more ambitious response than traditional agency processes can support.

While we appreciate the progress being made within and across departments and agencies, we are concerned that their respective approaches are not informed by a coherent national strategy. In our view, the current national level approach to 5G is comprised of a dispersed coalition of common concern, rather than a coordinated, inter-agency activity. Without a national strategy, facilitated by a common understanding of the geopolitical and technical impact of 5G and future telecommunications advancements, we expect each agency will continue to operate within its own mandate, rather than identifying national authority and policy deficiencies that do not neatly fall into a single department or agency. This fractured approach will not be sufficient to rise to the challenge the country faces.

We hope that you, as the new National Security Adviser, will make this issue a top priority. We would further urge you to designate a dedicated, senior individual focused solely on coordinating and leading the nation’s effort to develop and deploy future telecommunications technologies. We believe that having a senior leader would position the United States to lead on telecommunications advancements, ensure the United States is appropriately postured against this strategic threat, and demonstrate to our allies the seriousness with which the nation considers the issue.

We look forward to working with you as we consider additional authorities and resources necessary to address an issue of this importance. We hope that you and your designated lead on 5G issues will continue to engage in a serious and frank dialogue with Congress about what is required to address this challenge.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

References:

https://www.reed.senate.gov/news/releases/reed-leads-bipartisan-call-for-trump-admin-to-name-5g-coordinator

https://www.warner.senate.gov/public/_cache/files/3/6/36f90524-a335-49f9-abb9-39f91ab8db29/A3317D281C5DB3F82DBD8E0EF8650037.o-brien-kudlow-ssci-18nov19.pdf

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Addendum from IPlytics, November 2019:  

Table 1: Top patent owner of 5G declarations as to the number of patent families as to office of application and grant status– Qualcomm (7), Intel (8), InterDigital (12) are only U.S. companies listed.

Company name Declared 5G families Filed at USPTO, EPO or PCT Granted in one office
Huawei Technologies (CN) 3,325 2,379 1,337
Samsung Electronics (KR) 2,846 2,542 1,746
LG Electronics (KR) 2,463 2,296 1,548
Nokia (including Alcatel-Lucent) (FI) 2,308 2,098 1,683
ZTE Corporation (CN) 2,204 1,654 596
Ericsson (SE) 1,423 1,295 765
QUALCOMM (US) 1,330 1,121 866
Intel Corporation (US) 934 885 171
Sharp Corporation (JP) 808 677 444
NTT Docomo (JP) 754 646 351
CATT (CN) 588 360 72
InterDigital Technology (US) 428 346 226
Guangdong Oppo M Telecommunications (CN) 378 363 36
Vivo Mobile (CN) 193 168 0
ASUSTeK Computer (TW) 117 103 35
NEC Corporation (JP) 114 102 84
Apple (US) 79 73 52
KT Corporation (KR) 75 53 15
ETRI (KR) 71 50 20
Fujitsu (JP) 68 18 66
Mororola Mobility (US) 56 54 50
Lenovo Group Limited (CN) 51 48 19
HTC Corporation (TW) 46 44 40
MediaTek (TW) 42 38 30
WILUS Group (KR)  41 20 2
Panasonic (JP)  33 30 9
FG Innovation (CN)  33 33 4
Sony Corporation (JP) 22 17 23
ITRI (TW) 14 13 12
SK Telecom (KR) 12 8 0
Spreadtrum Communications (CN) 11 8 6

 

 

WRC 19 Report: IMT in the frequency bands 24.25-27.5GHz & 45.5-47GHz

WRC 19 agenda item AI-1.13 concerns the frequencies to be used by International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT), especially IMT 2020 (aka as standardized 5G).

1.13            To consider identification of frequency bands for the future development of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT), including possible additional allocations to the mobile service on a primary basis, in accordance with Resolution 238 (WRC-15);

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

In a backgrounder paper, ITU states:

The implications of 5G for spectrum allocation, management and sharing are immense. ITU is working towards providing stable international regulations, sufficient spectrum and suitable standards for IMT2020 and the core network to enable successful 5G deployments at the regional and international levels.

Over the weekend, a WRC 19 drafting group generated two related documents, each dated November 17, 2019.  The editor/chair for this activity is Michael Kraemer of Intel- Dusseldorf, Germany.

1. DRAFT NEW RESOLUTION [COM4/X] (WRC‑19): Terrestrial component of International Mobile Telecommunications in the frequency band 24.25-27.5 GHz

  • Frequency options for 24.25-27.5GHz:

A number of different options were proposed for an IMT identification of the 24.25‑27.5 GHz frequency band with various different conditions. The text below for conditions A2b through A2g is a possible global compromise as middle ground between these proposals for further consideration.

[Editor’s note: The mobile except aeronautical mobile allocation is not supported by some participants and the option of a “full” mobile allocation is still under discussion]

ARTICLE 5

Frequency allocations

Section IV – Table of Frequency Allocations
(See No. 2.1)

MOD         AHG113/447/1#75679

22-24.75 GHz

Allocation to services
Region 1 Region 2 Region 3
24.25-24.45

FIXED

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

24.25-24.45

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

RADIONAVIGATION

24.25-24.45

FIXED

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

RADIONAVIGATION

24.45-24.65

FIXED

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

24.45-24.65

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

RADIONAVIGATION

24.45-24.65

FIXED

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

RADIONAVIGATION

5.533 5.533
24.65-24.75

FIXED

FIXED-SATELLITE
(Earth-to-space)  5.532B

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

24.65-24.75

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

RADIOLOCATION-
SATELLITE (Earth-to-space)

24.65-24.75

FIXED

FIXED-SATELLITE
(Earth-to-space)  5.532B

INTER-SATELLITE

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

5.533

 

MOD         AHG113/447/2#75680

24.75-29.9 GHz

Allocation to services
Region 1 Region 2 Region 3
24.75-25.25

FIXED

FIXED-SATELLITE
(Earth-to-space)  5.532B

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

24.75-25.25

FIXED-SATELLITE
(Earth-to-space)  5.535

MOBILE [except aeronautical mobile]  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

24.75-25.25

FIXED

FIXED-SATELLITE
(Earth-to-space)  5.535

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

25.25-25.5                                              FIXED

INTER-SATELLITE  5.536

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

Standard frequency and time signal-satellite (Earth-to-space)

25.5-27                                                    EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to Earth)  MOD 5.536B

FIXED

INTER-SATELLITE  5.536

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

SPACE  RESEARCH (space-to-Earth)  5.536C

Standard frequency and time signal-satellite (Earth-to-space)

MOD 5.536A

27-27.5

FIXED

INTER-SATELLITE  5.536

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

27-27.5

FIXED

FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space)

INTER-SATELLITE  5.536  5.537

MOBILE  ADD 5.A113  MOD 5.338A

The frequency band 24.25-27.5 GHz is identified for use by administrations wishing to implement the terrestrial component of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT). This identification does not preclude the use of this frequency band by any application of the services to which it is allocated and does not establish priority in the Radio Regulations.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. DRAFT NEW RESOLUTION [COM4/x] (WRC‑19): International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) in the frequency band 45.5-47 GHz

This draft resolution suggests sharing between IMT and MSS (Earth-to-space and space-to-Earth) in the frequency band 45.5-47 GHz.  That spectrum is MUCH HIGHER then the mmWave frequencies previously considered for IMT 2020.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The World Radiocommunication Conference (Sharm el-Sheikh, 2019), considering:

  1. a) that International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT), including IMT-2000, IMT‑Advanced and IMT-2020, is intended to provide telecommunication services on a worldwide scale, regardless of location and type of network or terminal;
  2. b) that the evolution of IMT is being studied within ITU‑R;
  3. c) that adequate and timely availability of spectrum and supporting regulatory provisions is essential to realize the objectives in Recommendation ITU‑R M.2083;
  4. d) that there is a need to continually take advantage of technological developments in order to increase the efficient use of spectrum and facilitate spectrum access;
  5. e) that IMT systems are now being evolved to provide diverse usage scenarios and applications such as enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine-type communications and ultra-reliable and low-latency communications;
  6. f) that ultra-low latency and very high bit-rate applications of IMT will require larger contiguous blocks of spectrum than those available in frequency bands that are currently identified for use by administrations wishing to implement IMT;
  7. g) that the properties of higher frequency bands, such as shorter wavelength, would better enable the use of advanced antenna systems including MIMO and beam-forming techniques in supporting enhanced broadband;
  8. h) that harmonized worldwide bands for IMT are desirable in order to achieve global roaming and the benefits of economies of scale;

[i)                that studies in preparation for WRC‑19 have indicated that sharing between IMT and MSS (Earth-to-space and space-to-Earth) in the frequency band 45.5-47 GHz is feasible,]

noting:  Recommendation ITU‑R M.2083 “IMT Vision –Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond”,

recognizing:  that the identification of a frequency band for IMT does not establish priority in the Radio Regulations and does not preclude the use of the frequency band by any application of the services to which it is allocated,

resolves: [Note: align the conditions in resolves part with the relevant conditions from new Resolution(s) on 40.5-43.5 GHz and/or 66-71 GHz frequency band(s).]

1.                that administrations wishing to implement IMT consider the use of frequency band 45.5-47 GHz, identified for IMT in No. 5.F113 and the benefits of harmonized utilization of the spectrum for the terrestrial component of IMT taking into account the latest relevant ITU‑R Recommendation;]

2.                that, when deploying outdoor base stations in the frequency band 45.5-47 GHz, identified for IMT in No. 5.F113, all potential measures shall be taken to keep the electrical tilt of IMT base stations beams to be not higher than 0 degrees relative to horizontal and the mechanical tilt of IMT base stations be below −10 degrees relative to the horizon;

3.                 that the IMT base stations antenna pattern should be kept within the limits of approximation envelope according to Recommendation ITU‑R M.2101;

4.                 that the IMT base stations shall comply with the limits given in Tables 1 and 2:

Table 1

TRP1 limits for IMT base stations

Frequency bands dB(W/200 MHz)
45.5‑47 GHz −4
1     The total radiated power (TRP) is to be understood here as the integral of the power transmitted from all antenna elements in different directions over the entire radiation sphere.

Table 2

e.i.r.p. [1.] limits for IMT base stations

Elevation angle Maximum e.i.r.p. dB(W/200 MHz)
5 ≤ θ ≤ 15 17 − 1.3(θ − 5)
15 < θ ≤ 25 4
25 < θ ≤ 55 4 − 0.43(θ − 25)
55 < θ ≤ 90 −8.9

Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) is the product of transmitter power and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna of a radio transmitter. Normally the EIRP is given in dBi, or decibels over isotropic.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

ITU‑R is invited:

1                to develop harmonized frequency arrangements to facilitate IMT deployment in the frequency band 45.5-47 GHz;]

2                 to continue providing guidance to ensure that IMT can meet the telecommunication needs of the developing countries in the context of the studies referred to above.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

References:

Preview of WRC‑19: Enabling Global Radiocommunications via Radio Frequency Spectrum and Satellite Orbit Resources

GSMA: 5G mmWave activities at WRC 19

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Conferences/GSR/2019/Documents/Background_paper_Preparing%20for%20WRC19.pdf

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/conferences/wrc/2019/Pages/default.aspx