Qualcomm has released a new range of cellular connectivity modules for IoT devices. The seven new products range from entry-level to premium tier to expand access to a variety of industrial and commercial applications, including transportation and logistics, warehousing, video collaboration, smart cameras, retail and healthcare.
Qualcomm senior director of product management Nagaraju Naik said that the new chips are a comprehensive offering from entry-level to high-end products that meet the needs of a broad range of IoT solutions. Naik said that the high-end chips in particular will support video collaboration with support for high-resolution cameras and image signal processing for electronic pan, tilt and zoom actions.
“Companies need highly capable cameras and AI compute capability and connectivity to provide these services,” he said.
The chips can support a variety of activities, according to the company, including:
- Integrated connectivity
- Sensor fusion
- Person identification and detection
- Object detection
- Edge interaction
- Activity analysis
Naik said the chips also can support modern warehouse management from inventory management to package delivery to driver safety and productivity. In a warehouse environment, the entry-level chip can power the handheld device for managing inventory while the high-end chip can run the robot that pulls items. “All of these scenarios can be supported with the family of products we are introducing today,” Naik said.
Qualcomm also has promised extended life hardware and software options for a minimum of eight years for the new products. All of the new chips are available now except the QCM 6490.
The Qualcomm QCS8250 is the premium-tier offering, optimized to enable maximum performance at the greatest power efficiency possible for intensive AI at the edge. It comes with support for Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, with the Qualcomm Kryo 585 CPU architecture, latest Qualcomm AI Engine and an image signal processor to support up to 7 concurrent cameras with 4K resolution at 120 frames per second. The new Neural Processing Unit supports AI and machine learning for products such as smart cameras, video collaboration, AI hubs, connected healthcare and smart retail.
The next tier is the Qualcomm QCS6490 and QCM6490, also with global 5G connectivity and Wi-Fi 6E, and available from the second half of this year. These come with the Kryo 670 CPU architecture targeting industrial and commercial IoT applications such as transportation, warehousing, connected healthcare, logistics management and POS kiosks. The models can support triple ISPs and advanced edge-AI based on the 6th generation Qualcomm AI Engine.
The Qualcomm QCS4290 and QCM4290 are aimed at mid-tier devices, running the Kryo 260 CPU and 3rd generation Qualcomm AI Engine. This platform supports LTE Cat13 and is ready for upgrade to Wi-Fi 6.
For the entry-level market, the company has the Qualcomm QCS2290 and QCM2290 with LTE connectivity and memory support for low power consumption. Equipped with the Cortex A53 CPU architecture, this cost-effective solution is aimed at retail point-of-sale, industrial handheld, tracking and camera applications.
Customers supporting the new modules include Arrow Electronics, Zebra, Amtran, EInfoChips, Honeywell, Fibocom, Lanotronix and Quectel.
by David Alejandro Urquiza Villalonga and Manuel José López Morales, researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
The concept of the “connected home” has gained a lot of attention in the last decade as a means to improve various aspects of life. Entertainment, security, energy and appliance control, and electronic health monitoring are just a few representative applications. Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become increasingly important due to the COVID19 pandemic. With most employees working from home, remote access tools are booming because they connect people with their machines and assets. They enable people to remotely communicate with machines and perform virtual inspections, remote diagnostics as well as remote support.
Therefore, the development of a dynamic IoT environment that adapts to each individual’s needs is essential to provide an optimal productivity scenario. In this article, we describe an intelligent platform which interconnects several sensors and actuators using an IoT approach to collect and process big volumes of data. The IoT system, combined with a powerful artificial intelligence (AI) tool, learns the user’s behavior and offers improved new services according to their preferences  .
In this context, applications related to home security, remote health monitoring, climate control and lighting, entertainment, smart sleep, and intelligent shopping have been developed.
Challenges in IoT development and deployment:
There are several challenges to support massive IoT deployments providing connectivity for both cellular and non-cellular devices. New technologies with higher energy and spectral efficiency are required to enable smart device-to-device (D2D) communications with reduced connectivity costs . The technical requirements to fulfill include:
• The interconnection of several sensors in an intelligent management platform according to a massive machine-type-communications (mMTC) approach. In this sense, new spectrum access techniques and energy-efficient technologies to support the operation of a large number of devices are required.
• Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) communication to support video streaming for entertainment, remote working, and online teaching.
• Scalability: this will become an issue mainly in relations to generic consumers as the number of devices in operation rises.
• Dense and durable off-grid power sources: it would make a difference if power could be broadcasted wirelessly to smartphones and sensors from a distance.
Popular current smart home devices:
Some of the most popular smart home devices include the intelligent wireless speaker “Google Home” with a connected voice management system that interacts with the Google Assistant helping with music, calendar, news, traffic, etc. On the other hand, Amazon has developed its own intelligent devices, namely “Amazon Echo” (with Alexa) and “Amazon Echo Plus,” which includes a smart home Zigbee hub for easy setup and control of compatible smart home devices.
Far-field speech recognition is included in the “Amazon Echo Spot,” which is designed with a smart alarm clock that can make video calls with a tiny 2.5-inch screen, or become a nursery camera. LifeSmart provides smart home solutions focusing on security, energy-saving, and bringing convenience to life with a complex network of automatic intercommunication devices that simplifies daily routines .
Renesas offers a wide variety of IoT solutions for security, comfiness, health, connectivity and others, for different sectors such as automotive, healthcare, industrial, and home appliances .
Supporting technologies for massive IoT deployment:
Nevertheless, many products offered by companies still provide IoT solutions that can be thought as of being in an infancy state. The underlying communication technologies have to increase their capabilities in order to overcome the challenging needs and provide an improvement to IoT solutions.
Therefore, new wireless communication technologies [including 5G (IMT 2020), WiFi 6 (IEEE 802.11ax), Bluetooth 5, etc.] will be combined with classical short range wireless technologies [such as ZigBee, NFC and others] and installed in homes and small business offices. Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies from cellular carriers are LTE-Cat M1 , narrow band IoT (NB-IoT) and LoRa/LoRaWAN.
Several studies reveal that higher frequencies are expected to be able to operate as complementary bands for the deployment of 5G networks with higher capacity. It is expected that millimeter wave (mmWave) ultra-dense small-cells supported by massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) will be able to offer the capabilities to interconnect multiple devices and to provide high-speed services even in indoor scenarios. These small-cells may be interconnected with each other and with the core network by means of a fiber optic connection or with a mmWave backhaul.
Editor’s Note: Some wireless communications professionals believe that a 5G fixed wireless network, using massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies, will be able to offer high throughput and low latency to support many WiFi connected home devices. Verizon’s 5G Home Internet is an example of this.
On the other hand, network densification is a promising technology to overcome many issues in mmWave systems such as blockage and short-range coverage that can significantly increase the capacity of the network. Therefore, Ultra-dense networks (UDN) compound by small cells (SCs) is also considered to have an important role in IoT connectivity.
In addition, a fundamental feature needed to support massive IoT is scalability on the device and the infrastructure sides which can be provided by 5G cellular networks. 5G systems will be able to offer connectivity to an extremely large number of low-cost, low-power, low-complexity devices, based on an evolution of the current LTE narrow band IoT (NB-IoT) .
New radio access technologies will also be required. For example, cognitive radio (CR) to allocate bandwidth dynamically and to handle high interference levels. In addition, the big data processing capabilities for the AI learning and prediction process is supported only by 5G networks.
TeamUp5G  is a European Training Network (ETN) in the frame of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (MSCA ITN) of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 framework. TeamUp5G’s EU funding adds up to 3.72 million Euros between 2019 and 2022.
TeamUp5G is currently working on the use cases, technical challenges, and solutions to facilitate the technical feasibility of ultra-dense small cell networks.
The research objectives of TeamUp5G are focused on solving three problems: (1) Interference Management, waveforms, and mMIMO, (2) Dynamic Spectrum Management and Optimisation, and (3) Energy Consumption Reduction. Among others, it can provide the technical solutions to make massive IoT Smart Home connectivity feasible. Some of their research results include  and .
Where in Europe is TeamUp5G:
What Is the TeamUp5G Project:
Image Credit: TeamUp5G Project
In reference , the authors study a cognitive radio system with energy harvesting capabilities (CR-EH) to improve the spectral and energy efficiency according to the green communication paradigm. A novel optimal sensing policy to maximize detection performance of available spectrum and to protect primary users from interference is developed. The proposed scheme is based on the efficient use of harvested energy to implement spectrum sensing operations. Offline and online scheduling policies are derived with an optimal formulation based on convex optimization theory and Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm, respectively. In addition, two heuristic solutions with low complexity are also proposed to dynamically manage the use of spectrum with high levels of energy efficiency which is essential for IoT deployment.
In reference , the authors demonstrated how scenarios with stringent conditions such as high mobility, high frequency selective, low SNR and short-packet communications can benefit from the use of non-coherent mMIMO. Non-coherent mMIMO avoids the need of channel state information (CSI) to extract the benefits of mMIMO. This avoids the waste of resources due to the overhead created by the orthogonal signals, which is more severe in scenarios with stringent conditions. These types of scenarios are very common in Home IoT, since low battery powered devices will be the most common, such as a variety of domestic sensors and actuators. Furthermore, in short-packet communications, the use of CSI is proportionally greater due to shorter useful data as also happens in Home IoT, in which many devices send short bursts of data from time to time, thus benefiting from the use of non-coherent communications.
Thus, it has been shown that new interference management techniques, energy harvesting, and non-coherent communications can overcome some of the technical challenges inherent in IoT networks for Smart Home applications.
In this article, we have covered some aspects considered in IoT Smart Home 5G. We have first made an introduction with the basics of the use of IoT in homes, aided by 5G technology and AI. Secondly, we have presented some already existing solutions from companies such as Google, Amazon, LifeSmart, and Renesas, which work over legacy networks and thus do not extract all the potential benefits of 5G IoT Smart Home. We have continued stating the main technical challenges in IoT deployment. We have defined some technologies that will support the use of IoT at homes, including massive multiple-input multiple-output, millimeter waves, ultra dense networks, small cells, and cognitive radio. We have talked about the TeamUp5G project which partly focuses on the research of new solutions that can make the massive deployment of IoT Smart Home feasible.
From the perspective of the authors, the following decade will see an increase in the appearance of products based on the referenced technologies, which will bring the concept of IoT Smart Home based on 5G closer to reality.
 K. E. Skouby y P. Lynggaard, «Smart home and smart city solutions enabled by 5G, IoT, AAI and CoT services», en 2014 International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I), nov. 2014, pp. 874-878, doi: 10.1109/IC3I.2014.7019822.
 H. Uddin et al., «IoT for 5G/B5G Applications in Smart Homes, Smart Cities, Wearables and Connected Cars», en 2019 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), sep. 2019, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/CAMAD.2019.8858455.
 S. Ahmadi, 5G NR: Architecture, Technology, Implementation, and Operation of 3GPP New Radio Standards. Academic Press, 2019.
 D. A. Urquiza-Villalonga, J. Torres-Gómez, y M. J. Fernández-Getino-García, «Optimal Sensing Policy for Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Systems», IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 19, n.o 6, pp. 3826-3838, jun. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TWC.2020.2978818.
 M. J. Lopez-Morales, K. Chen-Hu and A. Garcia-Armada, “Differential Data-Aided Channel Estimation for Up-Link Massive SIMO-OFDM,” in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 1, pp. 976-989, 2020, doi: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2020.3008634.
According to Cisco’s newly renamed Annual Internet Report [1.], networked devices around the globe will total 29.3 billion in 2023, outnumbering humans by more than three to one. The number of overall connected devices: 29.3 billion networked devices by 2023, compared to 18.4 billion in 2018.
The report also anticipates that the internet of things (IoT) will spread to 50% of all networked devices through machine-to-machine (M2M) technology and that the internet will reach 5.3 billion people, compared to 3.9 billion in 2018.
“There is a lot of growth that still can happen from a user perspective,” said Shruti Jain, senior analyst with Cisco. “Machine-to-machine is going to grow phenomenally,” she added.
Note 1. Cisco’s Annual Internet Report was formerly titled Visual Networking Index or VNI)
Cisco said that about 70% of the global population will have mobile-network-based connectivity by 2023, with the total number of mobile subscribers growing from 66% of the population in 2018 to 71% of the population (5.7 billion) by 2023. Of those, about 10% will be 5G connections by the end of the forecast period, with the number of global mobile devices rising from 8.8 billion in 2018 to 13.1 billion, with 1.4 billion of those being 5G-capable.
5G speeds are anticipated to be 13-times faster than the average mobile connection speed: 575 Mbps by 2023. Ms. Jain noted that as mobile network speeds approach those of wireline networks, it opens up new possibilities for mobile applications.
“Soon, those speeds are going to get very close to WiFi and [wired] broadband speeds, and be able to support a lot of new applications and experiences,” she said.
Other key findings from the 2020 Cisco AIR:
-The number of devices per person will continue to rise, from 2.4 networked devices per-capita in 2018 to 3.6 devices by 2023.
-The number of public WiFi hot spots will increase fourfold by 2023, to nearly 628 million.
-Almost 300 million mobile applications will be downloaded by 2023, with the most popular ones being social media, gaming and business applications.
-Power users’ impact is dwindling. Cisco found that globally, the top 1% of mobile data users accounted for 5% of mobile data in 2019. That has dropped significantly since 2010, when the top 1% of mobile users accounted for 52% of mobile data usage.
Summary: Multi-domain innovation and integration redefines the Internet
Throughout the forecast period (2018 – 2023), network operators and IT teams will be focused on interconnecting all the different domains in their diverse infrastructures – access, campus/branch, IoT/OT, wide-area, data center, co-los, cloud providers, service providers, and security. By integrating these formerly distinct and siloed domains, IT can reduce complexity, increase agility, and improve security. The future of the Internet will establish new connectivity requirements and service assurance levels for users, personal devices and IoT nodes, all applications (consumer and business), via any network access type (fixed broadband, Wi-Fi, and cellular) with dynamic security. Through our research and analysis, we anticipate innovation and growth in the following strategic areas.
Applications: Across virtually every business sector, there is an increased demand for new or enhanced applications that improve customer experiences. The Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and business analytics are changing how developers build smart applications to simplify customer transactions and deliver new business insights. Businesses and service organizations need to understand evolving demands and deliver exceptional customer experiences by leveraging technology.
Infrastructure transformation: The rapid growth of data and devices is outpacing many IT teams’ capabilities and manual approaches won’t allow them to keep up. Increased IT automation, centrally and remotely managed, is essential for businesses to keep pace in the digital world. Service providers and enterprises are exploring software-defined everything, as well as intent-driven and context-powered infrastructures that are designed to support future application needs and flexibility.
Security: Cybersecurity is a top priority for all who rely on the Internet for business and personal online activities. Protect every surface, detect fast and remediate confidently. Protecting digital assets and content encompasses an ever-expanding digital landscape. Organizations need the actionable insights and scalable solutions to secure employees’ devices, IoT connections, infrastructure and proprietary data.
Empowering employees and teams: To achieve business agility and prepare employees for the future, empowering global work forces with the right tools is a must. Automation, collaboration and mobility are essential for managing IT complexity and new customer expectations and demands. Business teams, partners and groups in all types of organizations need to collaborate seamlessly across all application mediums that are relevant to various roles and responsibilities. Employees and teams need accurate and actionable data to solve problems and create new growth strategies.
For more information:
Several interactive tools are available to help you create custom highlights and forecast charts by region, by country, by application, and by end-user segment (refer to the Cisco Annual Internet Report Highlights tool). Inquiries can be directed to email@example.com.
New York City  officials will put Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) switches at 10,000 intersections in order to remotely repair dysfunctional stoplights. City traffic engineers are working with vendor Transition Networks (Minneapolis, MN) to build PoE systems in which a single cable can power a number of device such as VoIP phones, IP cameras and wireless access points, the city said.
Note 1. NYC is this author’s home town (he grew up in Manhattan). This seems to be a very real and useful IoT project!
PoE systems pass electric power and data on single cable to various devices, including wireless access points, IP cameras, and VoIP phones. The Managed Hardened Gigabit PoE+ Switch from Transition is designed for outdoor environments and can supply up to 30 watts per port on all eight ports simultaneously.
The switches power cameras and sensors at intersections. The cameras track traffic and pedestrian flows while the sensors count cars and support the city’s Connected Vehicle project. The data is transmitted to the city’s traffic monitoring center.
Transition Networks, a unit of Communications Systems, provides services and devices for security and surveillance, data center networking, business Ethernet, Fiber-to-the-Desk and wireless backhaul. Customers include enterprises, integrators, service providers, federal agencies, and the military.
According to a company press statement, “This application brings intelligent transportation infrastructure citywide and reinforces the relevance and timeliness of Transition Networks’ strategy of developing smart city Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. Transition Networks is working with a major North American telecommunication services company on the deployment of the solution.”
Anita Kumar, a director of product management and software engineering at Transition Networks, said in a news release.”Installing smart devices across cities allows transit agencies to enact changes that improve safety and traffic flow. Our solution provides the power and connection to make it all possible. Smart device installation will grow in importance as transit agencies look to improve service, create efficiencies and increase quality of life for growing cities.”
Photo courtesy of Transition Networks
The Connection Vehicle project will support Vision Zero, a plan to eliminate traffic deaths and injuries and reduce damage to vehicles and infrastructure. The NYC deployment uses vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and infrastructure-to-pedestrian (IVP) communications. V2V communications include blind spot and lane change warnings. V2I communications track cars that speed and run red lights. IVP alerts include warnings to cars when people are in a crosswalk and guidance to blind pedestrians via cell phones.
The new system includes a reboot feature. When there is a problem with a traffic signal, a technician goes out to check the device and reset it manually. Transportation officials will use this new system to reset the devices remotely, without having to close lanes and stop traffic.
Transition’s Device Management System (DMS) software also creates an interactive map of all connected devices, making it easier for city engineers to identify problems in the system. (DMS) software creates an interactive map to see all connected devices, enabling the agency to pinpoint issues and quickly take action. DMS has been an important function for several smart city projects including an installation at New York City’s Brooklyn Bridge.
Transition Networks, “Currently, if a device stops working at an intersection, the agency must take multiple actions prior to deploying a repair technician. This includes scheduling a technician to evaluate the issue and deploying a bucket truck to reach the device. Once the technician is at the site, the lane closures cause significant stress and traffic delays for motorists. Many times the fix only requires a reboot of the device. Transition Networks’ Auto Power Reset (APR) feature provides the ability to remotely reboot or manage Transition Networks’ equipment fixing the issue within minutes and eliminating all of the lane closure requirements. This feature alone will save the agency significant costs and lessen traffic disruptions by reducing the need to send a technician to inspect equipment.”
New York City is counting on these new tools and data collection to improve safety, traffic management and transportation citywide.
New York needs all the help it can get with traffic. Uber and Lyft have increased traffic congestion and trucks deliver 1.5 million packages from Amazon to city residents every day. In Manhattan, the average speed is 7 mph, about 23% slower than 10 years ago.
by Adam Piore
In 2009, just as consumers had begun to buy wifi-enabled thermostats and front-door cams and other early devices that now make up the “Internet of Things,” computer scientist Ang Cui had gotten the idea to scan the Web for “trivially vulnerable” embedded devices.
By trivial, he meant those devices that still carried the usernames and pass codes programmed into them at the factory—obvious usernames like “name” and passcodes like “1234.” Many of these codes were published in manuals available freely on the internet and easily scanned automatically with computer programs, so there was no need even to guess.
When he did his scan, Cui found more than one million vulnerable, publicly accessible devices in 144 countries. From this sample, he estimated that about 13 percent of all devices connected to the internet were essentially unlocked doors, waiting for a hacker to walk through. Even more alarming, four months later 96 percent of those devices had the same security holes.
Cui’s warning was no less terrifying for its deadpan delivery: “Widely deployed and often mis-configured, embedded network devices constitute highly attractive targets for exploitation.”
In the decade since, the number of vulnerable devices connected to the internet has increased sevenfold. The explosion comes from growing demand, fueled by hype, for smart devices. Manufacturers are now tripping over themselves to embed just about every ordinary object, it seems, with tiny computers that happily communicate wirelessly with the world around them. In this “smart” revolution, virtually any device with an on/off switch or up/down button can be controlled remotely with a cellphone or voice sensor. Do you want to turn up the heat, dim the lights and run the dryer without getting up off the sofa—simply by uttering your desire to an Amazon Echo? Do you want your toaster to send a message to the television when the bagel has popped? Do you want your oven to inform you that the casserole has cooked for the prescribed 20 minutes at 350 degrees and is now cooling in the kitchen at 200? The Internet of Things can make all such things happen.
There’s a dark side to this wireless-driven revolution in convenience. The danger goes beyond hacking. Unlike the traditional “Internet of Computers,” which is confined to a circumscribed digital “virtual” world, the Internet of Things has a direct connection to the physical one. That opens up a disturbing set of questions: What might happen if the computers inside our new-fangled toaster ovens, security cameras or smart cities were turned against us? Can we really trust the Internet of Things? Most cybersecurity experts are unequivocal in their answer to that last question. “No,” says Ben Levine, senior director, product management, cryptography at Rambus, a Sunnyvale, CA-based technology company, specializing in the performance and protection of data. “My short answer, right now, is ‘no’.”
Unlike the “Internet of Computers,” which has been created largely by technicians with a background in information technology or computer science, many manufacturers making the devices now lack the expertise necessary to build airtight systems. Some don’t realize the importance of doing so. As a result, the possibilities for mischief seem endless—a fact Cui and other cybersecurity mavens have demonstrated on multiple occasions.
Is your vibrator cheating on you?
Some of the more creative of these exploits in recent months come from the lab of Alvaro Cardenas, who challenged his students at the University of Texas at Dallas last year to crack a wide array of IoT devices. Among other things, they managed to turn on and hijack a drone and demonstrate they could use it to attack an innocent victim, Kamikaze-style, or to stream video and audio of a neighbor. They hacked into a popular children’s toy—a small, talking dinosaur networked to the internet so it could receive updates. Then they demonstrated they could take over the toy and use it to insult the child, instigate inappropriate conversations (using the trusted voice of the toy) or tell the child what to do. They showed they could take control of internet-connected cameras to spy on households. They even identified the existence of “sensitive devices”—vibrators—sometimes used by overseas military personnel to have remote virtual relations with their partners. Not only were they able to obtain private usage information, they warned it was possible to impersonate a “trusted partner” and “commit remote sexual assault.”
Cardenas reported their findings to device manufacturers and the CERT Coordination Center, a federally funded non-profit R & D group that works with business and government to improve the security of the internet. Then he submitted a paper to IEEE, a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering, which published their findings in a special issue this fall.
“These attacks show how IoT technologies are challenging our cultural assumptions about security and privacy and will hopefully motivate more emphasis on the security and privacy practices of IoT developers and designers,” they wrote. (After the paper was published, all the manufacturers responded and attempted to fix the vulnerabilities, except for the drone companies).
By the end of 2018, more than 23 billion IoT devices had been installed globally. Many consumers buying these smart devices currently don’t bother to hook them up to their WiFi, which means they’re essentially offline and out of reach of hackers. But that may change as manufacturers continue to tout the benefits of connectivity. And the number of devices is expected to more than triple, to 75 billion, by 2025.
The sheer number of vulnerable devices gives hackers powerful leverage. The Mirai attack of 2016, which may have been inspired by Cui’s original paper, illustrates how dangerous the threat has grown. Paras Jha, a quiet, socially awkward college dropout from New Jersey, ran a lucrative business renting space on his own private computer server to fellow aficionados of the video-game Minecraft, so they could play privately with their friends. It sounds pleasant, but the business is cutthroat. A common tactic of Jha and his rivals was to hack into the home computers of unsuspecting people, hijack them with malware and instruct them to send torrents of unwanted messages and data to the machines of their rivals, overwhelming them and hopefully shutting them down—known as a Distributed Denial of Service Attack (DDoS). Unsuspecting customers, frustrated by the “unreliable” service, were then easy targets for poaching.
In 2016, Jha and two Minecraft friends he’d met online decided to do his rivals one better. They hacked not only desktop computers but also the myriad security cameras, wireless routers, digital video recorders, household appliances and other IoT devices. Like Cui before him, Jha and his friends wrote a program that scanned the internet to locate vulnerable devices. But unlike Cui, they actually planted malware on the machine and took control of them. Leveraged by the proliferation of smart devices, Jha’s zombie bot army grew faster than he could have imagined–by the end of the first day, he had appropriated 65,000 devices; by some estimates his zombie army reached 600,000.
The attack, nicknamed “Mirai” (“the future”) after a Japanese television series, was so powerful that Jha wasn’t content with taking down his small-fry Minecraft rivals. He also trained the new weapon on the huge French telecom provider OVH, which hosted a popular tool that his rivals relied on to defend themselves against his attacks. Eventually, the cops took notice. Jha was fined $8.6 million and 2,500 hours of community service working for the FBI.
Cui, now the 36-year-old founder and CEO of Red Balloon Security, often gives talks at hacker conferences wearing a tee-shirt, a bead necklace, and a man bun and makes a good living advising companies how to protect themselves in a hostile cyber-world. He continues to marvel at how little has been done to patch not just the vulnerability his paper identified but also many others that he believes could arguably cause even more damage. While the security firms serving large well-financed companies like those targeted in the Mirai attacks have come up with new ways to defend client servers against DDoS attacks, many manufacturers of IoT devices are doing little if anything to protect the rest of us from cyber mischief—not just zombie device conscription, but also spying, sabotage and exploits that security experts argue should raise profound privacy and safety concerns.
What accounts for the neglect, Cui believes, is a gold-rush mentality to grab market share in the burgeoning IoT device business. Over the last five years, the hype over IoT has become so hot that many VC-funded startups in the consumer-device field—and even some major manufacturers—are adding internet connectivity, rushing their products to market, and resolving to fix any security flaws later. Some haven’t even thought about security at all. “You have to put in the time and resources to care about security,” says Cui. “But there’s a lot of VC money, and they want to very quickly roll out a thing that has an IoT feature that they think the market might like.”
The money is primarily spent to develop new devices. “The problem at the moment is that there’s really no incentive for security,” Cardenas told Newsweek. “Security usually gets in the back burner of these products.” Most consumers aren’t aware of the dangers and aren’t demanding protection. And the device manufacturers are under no obligation to provide it.
In a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Manos Antonakakis, an associate professor in the school of electrical and computer engineering, and research scientist Omar Alrawi, have also been probing the gaping security vulnerabilities of the emerging IoT. Antonakakis notes that while there’s a class of well-known vendors that “at least try to get the security right in some cases,” even large manufacturers are under pressure to rush new IoT products onto the current market. “It takes a lot of quality assurance and testing, and penetration analysis and vulnerability analysis to get it right,” he says. But the rush to market “comes into violent disagreements with proven security practices.”
Many of the largest tech companies have invested heavily in tapping into the market for “smart home” devices, one of the fastest growing areas for IoT devices. Amazon is among those dominating the market for smart hubs, along with Google, which purchased the digital thermostat maker Nest in 2014 for $3.2 billion. Google has since expanded it to become a digital hub that also includes smoke detectors and security systems like smart doorbells and locks. Samsung has the SmartThings hub, which it acquired in 2014 for $200 million, and now connects to air conditioners, washers and TVs. Apple has a home kit which can control any number of devices through voice commands delivered in range of its HomePod.
Once these systems are installed, devices from a growing number of companies can be added to the home network, including those made by well-known home appliance manufacturers like GE, Bosch and Honeywell. Belkin makes a line of connected appliances that includes a Crock-Pot WeMo Smart Slow Cooker, smart Mr. Coffee maker and a smart home humidifier. There’s a lot of money to be made. All told by the end of 2019, more than $490 billion in profits will have been earned on the nearly 2 billion consumer devices sold over the previous 12 months, according to the property management consulting firm iProperty Management.
To try to draw attention to the dangers—and the things consumers should be asking questions about when buying new IoT products—Antonakakis and Alrawi, in collaboration with researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, have developed a rating system and begun evaluating the security of a wide array of IoT devices. And surprisingly they found gaping vulnerabilities in devices and systems produced by even some of the most tech-savvy companies.
The vulnerability of IoT devices goes well beyond holes in password protection, the vulnerability exposed by the Mirai attack, they argue. IoT devices can also be accessed and taken over directly through the home network they are connected to, and that home network is only as strong as its weakest link. That means that even if each device comes with a unique password and username, it’s not necessarily secure. Once hackers find a way onto the home network through one vulnerable device, the path is often wide open to the rest of the network.
To secure an IoT device, they argue, manufacturers need to patch vulnerabilities in four different areas : direct access to the device itself, the mobile app used to run it, the way it communicates with its home network and, in many cases, the cloud-based server that manufacturers use to push out updates, collect user data, or provide new services.
Getting all that right is not easy. For a vendor to secure all four parts, Alrawi notes, it needs a good mobile-app developing team “that knows secure development,” a “system team that does very good embedded system development and secure development” and cloud experts who can design a secure cloud “backend” that allows the device to be managed without exposing it to additional risk. Finally, the device manufacturers need somebody who has network knowledge on how to build efficient and secure internet protocols and what protocols to avoid.
“They have to balance all this with usability,” he says “So you can see that this is already getting really hard to manage just mentally. When a startup team that comes up with this great idea wants to push a product to market, they’re usually a small team that doesn’t have all this expertise. But even with big vendors, some of these problems are really hard to pin down and manage.”
Indeed, while Antonakakis, Alrawi and their team give relatively high marks for device security to the mainstream products like the Amazon Echo and the Belkin Netcam, they gave them Cs, Ds, and Fs for network security—a measure of how protected these devices are from intruders who manage to access the home wireless network through other vulnerable devices. And while a number of devices associated with Google‘s Nest smart home products (like thermostats, smoke detectors, smart locks and doorbells) receive As and Bs for device and network security, they got Cs and Ds for mobile and cloud protections—meaning a resourceful hacker intent on say, unlocking the front door, could still access a home.
The cloud category is the most worrisome. Since many of these services are cloud based and connected to central company servers, if a determined, well-financed hacker—say, China, North Korea or Russia—were to use the same kind of sophisticated exploits they have used to bypass security on the traditional internet of computers, there’s no telling what they might do.
“You’re talking about getting access to potentially millions of people’s homes, and when that happens, think about all of the microphones and cameras and actuators that you have around your house, and multiply that out by all the people who use these things,” Cui says.
“Many consumers don’t fully understand the risks associated with installing some of these devices in their homes,” adds Alrawi.
Until they do, the situation is unlikely to change. Many experts wonder how big a price we will have to pay before that happens. “It’s a mess,” says David Kennedy, a cybersecurity expert who designs security for a wide array of manufacturers and has testified before Congress on the IoT. “An absolute mess. We’re going into this very blind, without a lot of security discussions around what the impacts are going to be to our lives and to our safety.”
Kennedy, whose current title is CEO of the company TrustedSec, has hacked into his share of devices over the years to make a point, including smart TVs, thermostats, smart fridges, robotic house cleaners and controllers that are connected to the energy grid. But Kennedy’s biggest concern at the moment is in the area of automotive safety.
There have already been some cautionary tales. In 2015, Fiat Chrysler had to issue a safety recall affecting 1.4 million vehicles in the United States so it could patch software vulnerabilities, after two security researchers hacked into the internet-connected entertainment system of a Jeep Cherokee carrying a magazine reporter, took control of the vehicle, blasted the radio and AC, then brought traffic to a standstill in the middle of a freeway.
The problem, says Kennedy, is that most cars have scores of different pieces of technology in them, many of which are connected directly to the internet to allow them to transmit data needed for preventive maintenance. But the manufacture of these different IoT devices is often subcontracted out to scores of different contractors, which makes it logistically difficult to provide security updates and patches when new security vulnerabilities are discovered. (He pointed to Tesla as the major exception because, he argues, it is “a software manufacturer first and car manufacturer second,” and thus knows how to build secure systems.)
The idea of regularly pushing out preventive security updates to patch newly discovered vulnerabilities in IoT-networked cars—a standard practice for products like Microsoft windows and the Apple iPhone—is new and has not yet been incorporated into the automotive industry. “I can’t talk about which car manufacturers I’ve done assessment work for, but I can tell you that I’ve worked for a number of them, and security practices need a lot of work,” he says. “They’re not pushing patches out to the cars, which makes them extremely vulnerable to specific attacks—everything from eavesdropping in your car to driving them off the road.”
The nightmare scenario is a mass fleet takeover, where a bad actor hacks different cars across the world to cause mass mayhem. “That’s definitely something that’s possible now with these interconnected cars, no question about it,” Kennedy says. “Someone will lose their life and then eventually they’ll kind of knee jerk into fixing the whole industry. I think that’s what it will take to change the mentality of car manufacturers.”
Lawmakers in some jurisdictions are beginning to wade into the murky waters of IoT regulation. In January, California will become the first state to implement an IoT security law. The bill, passed in 2018 with a January 2020 deadline, will require companies that make connected devices to equip them with “reasonable security features,” explicitly requiring that each device come with either a unique passcode or require the user to generate one before using the IoT device for the first time—taking aim at patching the vulnerability exploited so successfully in the Mirai exploit and the copycat attacks that have followed. Beyond that, however, the law seems to have been written to be purposely vague, allowing room for further state guidance in the future.
Cybersecurity experts have called on the Federal government in the U.S. to step in to regulate the industry. The U.S. House of Representatives last March introduced a bill, for the third session in a row, that would require the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the U.S. Department of Commerce to develop recommended standards for IoT devices, and would assign the Office of Management and Budget (OMB ) the task of issuing guidance to agencies that aligns with NIST‘s requirements. The law would also require NIST to offer guidance on vulnerability disclosure and report on IoT cybersecurity threats.
Two and half years ago, NIST started a program to look at the issue and this past summer solicited public comment on a voluntary set of minimum “baseline” security functions that any internet capable device should offer, whether it is intended for consumers, businesses or federal agencies, says Katerina “Kat” Megas NIST program manager, Cybersecurity for Internet of Things.
Among them, every single device must have a unique number or identifier associated with it that shows up on the network, which would make it easy to locate quickly and unplug the source of any problems that arise—a feature that many IoT devices currently do not offer. Other features would manage access to each device through secure methods of user authentication; protect data by encrypting it; and provide secure updates and log cyber-events so investigators can track how problems develop.
Few experts have illusions these measures will solve the problem soon. The standards would be voluntary. And even if Congress were to enact laws mandating security standards, a profound security vulnerability would remain: users themselves.
“No matter how strong your system is, it’s only as strong as your weakest link—and the weakest link is always the human,” says Jason Glassberg, cofounder of Casaba Security, a leading cybersecurity firm. “The largest breaches, the largest attacks for the most part have not been because of some super significantly technical attack. It’s been because someone’s been fooled into giving up their credentials. They’ve been fooled into clicking on a link which installed malware or asked them to provide their password. And it certainly doesn’t change in the Internet of Things world.
Original article is at:
After 3GPP release 16 has been completed and included in IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT, 5G networks will offer ultra-reliable, ultra-low-latency and high-bandwidth capabilities. That will open up new enterprise market opportunities for communications service providers/wireless network operators. Therefore, understanding the future market is key to an effective strategy. Gartner Inc. says that IoT use cases like surveillance cameras and connected cars will offer the biggest markets for 5G IoT.
Market Share (%)
Market Share (%)
|Connected cars — embedded (consumer and commercial)||
Outdoor surveillance cameras
Fleet telematics devices
In-vehicle toll devices
Due to rounding, figures may not add up precisely to the totals shown
Source: Gartner (October 2019)
Connected Cars Will Offer the Biggest Opportunity for 5G IoT in the Long Term:
In 2023, the automotive industry will become the largest market opportunity for 5G IoT solutions. It will represent 53% of the overall 5G IoT endpoint opportunity in that year.
Within the automotive sector, embedded connected-car modules are the major use case for 5G. Embedded endpoints in connected cars for commercial and consumer markets will represent an installed base of 19.1 million units out of a total of 25.9 million 5G endpoints in the automotive sector in 2023.
“The addressable market for embedded 5G connections in connected cars is growing faster than the overall growth in the 5G IoT sector,” said Ms. Baghdassarian. “Commercial and consumer connected-car embedded 5G endpoints will represent 11% of all 5G endpoints installed in 2020, and this figure will reach 39% by the end of 2023.”
In addition, the share of 5G-connected cars actively connected to a 5G service will grow from 15% in 2020 to 74% in 2023. This figure will reach 94% in 2028, when 5G technology will be used for Cellular V2X communications that enable messages to be sent and received within vehicles and between vehicles, infrastructure, pedestrians, cyclists and more. Ultimately, connected cars actively connected to a 5G service will help keep traffic moving and improve road safety.
“As the automotive industry will be the largest sector for IoT endpoints and 5G IoT use cases in the long term, we recommend that CSPs that want to be relevant in the 5G IoT market put this industry at the forefront of their investments. They should do this in terms of personnel who understand the sector and of partnerships that will move the market forward,” said Ms. Baghdassarian.
Other Analyst and Industry Opinions:
“The industrial IoT market is among the most fractured especially amongst the verticals like healthcare and automotive,” said Lee Doyle, principal analyst with Doyle Research. “Large companies such a Cisco, HP and IBM have been challenged to address it because it is so fractured. It’s not at all clear any one of them has the overall network architecture to handle it all.” Vendors need to show users on a case-by-case, application-by-application basis what works, Doyle said.
“With 5G, you can put more video cameras up in a big facility to monitor where folks are going and what they’re doing. Then bring analytics into the picture to increase efficiency. Speed really matters when you’re adding that many cameras,” said Samsung Networks’ VP of Networks Strategy & Marketing Alok Shah.
Shah believes the most “magical” element of 5G for enterprise users is decreased latency (so does this author, but it won’t happen till 3GPP Release 16 is finalized). “Bringing latency down substantially allows the user to perform from a remote perspective much more. Robotics in factories can be manipulated without being there in person,” he elaborated.
In addition, with 5G, the number of IoT sensors that can be implemented can skyrocket. “It can go up to a million sensors around a facility, which is huge,” Shah stated. “It’s a combo of these different things. You don’t get all of this at once because different devices have different requirements, but network slicing will help with this,” Shah added.
Ericsson’s new 5G business potential report considers a set of “5G-enabled B2B use case clusters” as drivers of industrial 5G revenues. Among these use case clusters, it said “enhanced video services” represents the largest opportunity for telecoms providers in terms of value across industrial sectors, worth up to 17 per cent or $118 billion of the total value by 2030.
Ericsson said enterprise 5G services will drive up to $700 billion of new revenues in the period. However, the total market, of 5G services for industry will be worth more than twice that, it said. The $700 billion operators can go for corresponds to 47 per cent of the total 5G business-to-business (B2B) market to be served by ICT players. Network operators must extend their reach “beyond connectivity” and consider newer roles for their services and expertise within the B2B value chain, and “what use case clusters to address.” Operators must act urgently, Ericsson warned, if they are to capture new value from industrial transformation services, as revenues for existing airtime services will remain stagnant through to 2030.
The chart below superbly illustrates the dire dilemma of network operators- traffic increasing exponentially, revenues (measured by ARPU) decreasing!
Jan Karlsson, senior vice president and head of B2B digital services at Ericsson, said: “The journey to grow the 5G business starts now by building momentum and identifying 5G-enabled B2B opportunities.”
Ericsson looked at the following industrial sectors for its report: manufacturing, automotive, energy and utilities, public safety, healthcare, media and entertainment, public transport, financial services, retail, and agriculture.
Other use cases in the report, besides enhanced video, include real-time automation, connected vehicles, and augmented/virtual reality. The company said use case examples building up these ‘clusters’ include live streaming of events, real-time monitoring of distributed energy, and autonomous cars.
–>Please refer to my comment in box below this article for more on the Ericsson report.
“Clearly there is no single access technology out there that solves all the problems and challenges of networking especially in the industrial arena where customers have one of every type of communications device imaginable, but 5G and Wi-Fi 6 will deliver a whole bunch of new use cases and address many multi-access requirement challenges,” said Liz Centoni, senior vice president and general manager of Cisco’s Internet of Things Business Unit, in an interview with Network World.
“Many industrial IoT use cases mandate wide mobility, low latency, and mission-critical reliability, such as mobile-robot control in production automation and autonomous vehicles in open-pit mining. These use cases rely on wireless access at 50ms to 1ms latency and service reliability from 5 nines to 6 nines,” Centoni wrote in a recent blog about 5G.
“4G/LTE has attempted to address these use cases but has often failed due to unsatisfactory performance. 5G’s combination of ultra-reliable and low-latency connection will extend industrial IoT to unconquered spaces,” Centoni.
Cisco’s Scott Harrell, senior vice president and general manager of enterprise networking told Network World the company expects to see a lot of 5G being used in branches as a faster backup and bandwidth alternative to current 4G or LTE links. Keeping an enterprise’s branch and campus locations all connected to each other and the internet has traditionally fallen to wired technologies like T1/E1 and xDSL, Harrell said. Today, 4G is often used to quickly bring up sites or as a back-up link, but it’s seldom used as a primary link, due to bandwidth limitations and cost, Harrell said.
By Juan Carlos Zuniga, Sigfox, IETF Internet Area Co-Chair, (edited by Alan J Weissberger)
Amongst the plethora of different Internet of Things (IoT) technologies [see Addendum], Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs)  offer mature and well-established solutions for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).
Note 1. A LPWAN is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications with low power consumption, low cost interface and a relatively low bit rate for the IIoT. There are many types of LPWANs. Some like LTE-M and NB-IoT use licensed spectrum, while others such as Sigfox and LoRaWAN use unlicensed spectrum.
LPWANs enables IoT systems to be designed for use cases that require devices to send small amounts of data periodically over often-remote networks that span many miles and use battery-powered devices that need to last many years.
LPWANs achieve those attributes by having the IoT devices (“things”) send only small packets of information periodically or even infrequently—status updates, reports, etc.—upon waking from an external trigger or at a preprogrammed time interval.
In order to enable these IIoT connectivity solutions, a common standard is needed to allow the various types of LPWANs to communicate with applications using a common language. For this to occur, each network must have the ability to connect to the Internet. However, due to the severely restrictive nature of LPWANs, the abilities of Internet Protocols, specifically IPv6, cannot sufficiently meet the needs of these networks.
To overcome these issues, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) chartered the LPWAN working group (WG) in 2016 to identify common functionality needs across LPWANs and to standardize the protocols that could enable these functionalities across the various networks.
The goal of the IETF LPWAN WG is to converge the diverse LPWAN radio technologies toward a common hourglass model that will provide users with a standard management strategy across networks and enable common Internet-based services to the applications.
To achieve this goal, the IETF LPWAN WG has produced the Static Context Header Compression and Fragmentation (SCHC)  specification, an ultralightweight adaptation layer uniquely designed to support the extremely restricted communication resources of LPWAN technologies.
Note 2. SCHC is expected to become a recognized acronym like several other IETF protocols (e.g. HTTP, TCP, DHCP, DNS, IP, etc.). Please see illustration below of SCHC Architecture.
SCHC will soon be published as a new IETF RFC. Again, it’s objective is to achieve interoperability across the leading LPWANs, including Sigfox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT and IEEE 802.15.4w(LPWA) .
Note 3. IEEE 802.15.4w or LPWA
Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) extension to the IEEE Std 802.15.4 LECIM PHY layer to cover network cell radii of typically 10-15km in rural areas and deep in-building penetration in urban areas. It uses the LECIM FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) PHY modulation schemes with extensions to lower bit-rates (e.g. payload bit-rate typically < 30 kb/s). Additionally, it extends the frequency bands to additional sub-GHz unlicensed and licensed frequency bands to cover the market demand. For improved robustness in channels with high levels of interference, it defines mechanisms for the fragmented transmission of Forward Error Correction (FEC) code-words, as well as time and frequency patterns for the transmission of the fragments. Furthermore, it defines lower code rates of the FEC in addition to the K=7 R=1/2 convolutional code. Modifications to the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, needed to support this PHY extension, are defined.
Why do LPWANs need their own interoperability standard?
The common characteristics of LPWANs include a power-optimized radio network, a simple star network topology, frame sizes in the order of tens of bytes transmitted a few times per day at ultra-low speeds, and a mostly upstream transmission pattern that allows devices to spend most of their time in sleep mode. These characteristics lead to ultra-long-range networks that allow for connected devices to have an extremely long battery life and be sold at a very low cost, enabling simple and scalable deployments.
LPWANs are especially well-suited for deployments in environments where battery recharging or swapping is not an option and where only a very low rate of data reporting is required. Also, LPWAN networks are fundamentally different than other networks, as they have been designed to handle infrequent message exchanges of payloads as small as approximately 10 bytes.
To manage these very specific constraints, the IETF has developed the SCHC adaptation layer, which is located between the network layer (e.g. IPv6) and the underlying LPWAN radio technology. SCHC comprises two independent sublayers – header compression and fragmentation – which are critical to meeting the specific characteristics of LPWANs.
The SCHC header compression sublayer has been tailored specifically for LPWAN technologies, and it is capable of compressing protocols such as IPv6, UDP and CoAP. It relies on the infrequent variability of LPWAN applications to define static contexts that are known a priori to both protocol end points.
The SCHC fragmentation sublayer, on the other hand, offers a generic approach to provide both data reliability and the capability of transmitting larger payload sizes over the extremely constrained LPWAN packet sizes and the extremely severe message rate limitations. Even though the fragmentation sublayer mechanisms have been designed to transport long IPv6 packets, they can equally be applied to non-IP data messages and payloads, as the functionality can be implemented independent of the header compression.
In order to be fully operational across LPWAN technologies, SCHC has been developed by the IETF under a generic and flexible approach that aims to address the common and unique requirements of these networks. The SCHC specification offers enough flexibility to optimize the parameter settings that need to be used over each LPWAN technology.
The IETF LPWAN WG is now working on the development of different SCHC profiles optimized for each individual LPWAN technology, including Sigfox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT and IEEE 802.15.4w. Future work also includes definition of data models to represent the static contexts, as well as operation, administration and management (OAM) tools for LPWANs.
From the early stage IETF Sigfox SCHC profile spec:
The Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) specification describes a header compression scheme and a fragmentation functionality for Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies. SCHC offers a great level of flexibility that can be tailored for different LPWAN technologies. The present (early stage) document provides the optimal parameters and modes of operation when SCHC is implemented over a Sigfox LPWAN.
Addendum –by Alan J Weissberger
IEEE definition of IoT:
“An IoT system is a network of networks where, typically, a massive number of objects, things, sensors or devices are connected through communications and information infrastructure to provide value-added services via intelligent intelligent data processing processing and management management for different different applications (e.g. smart cities, smart health, smart grid, smart home, smart transportation, and smart shopping).”
— IEEE Internet of Things Journal
IoT communications over LPWANs should be:
Long battery life duration,
High number of connections,
Low processing capacity,
Low storage capacity,
Small size devices,
Simple network architecture and protocols
Also see IETF draft RFC 8376 LPWAN Overview
Sigfox Network Characteristics:
First LPWAN Technology
The physical layer based on an Ultra-Narrow band wireless modulation
Low throughput ( ~100 bps)
Extended range (up to 50 km)
Cloud platform with Sigfox –defined API for server access
I. IoT World May 14, 2019 presentation by Alexandra Rehak, Practice Leader IoT, Ovum and Steve Bell, Sr. Analyst, Heavy Reading.
Edited by Alan J Weissberger
- IoT devices will grow to 21.5bn by 2023, while revenue will nearly double to $860bn.
- Key trends driving IoT evolution in 2019: enabling technologies, new business models, (industry) verticalization, big data & analytics, new tools, e.g. AI/ML.
- Drivers for IoT deployment still focus on efficiency and customer
experience, but many enterprises are looking for new revenue. Top 4 IoT drivers are to improve: operation efficiency, customer engagement & experience, strategic decision making based on actionable insights, new revenue streams from value added products/services.
- The biggest enterprise IoT challenge is data – how to secure it, how
to derive analytics value from it, how to integrate it. Top 3 barriers to enterprise IoT deployment: data security & privacy (has been top concern for last 10+ years), data analytics skills/data scientists, difficult to integrate with existing IT (and likely OT too), complexity of technical implementation (and systems integration).
1. LPWAN will be a key enabler for cheaper, massive scale IoT
connectivity – and 2019 will be the year it finally takes off (Alan has heard that for several years now! However, NB-IoT and LoRa are growing very quickly in 2019.)
• <$1 per month connectivity
• <$10 modules
• Low bandwidth, long battery life, extended coverage characteristics
• Use cases: smart cities, consumer IoT, asset monitoring, environmental monitoring
• NB-IoT, LTE-M, LoRa, Sigfox are the big four LP WANs
2. 5G enables enhanced IoT digital capabilities:
▪ High bandwidth services – eg UHD video
▪ Critical applications, which require low latency – e.g., autonomous driving, industrial applications (3GPP Release 16 and IMT 2020 approved standard)
▪ High bandwidth, low latency services – e.g., augmented reality
▪ Information intensive routines, which require low latency performance– eg smart advertising, True AI (is what we have today fake AI?)
▪ Services that can – but don’t readily – work over 4G, e.g., mobile video conferencing
3. Edge and the IoT opportunity:
Virtualized services (including gateways and vCPE), FOG nodes, life cycle management, linking silos (systems and data), many different applications, data analytics, AI/ML/DL, threat intelligence, device management services, security credential management.
4. Blockchain is still early-stage as an IoT enabler, but promising use
cases are emerging
- Authentication of devices joining IoT network
- Supply chain management and verification
- Smart grid microcontracts
- Autonomous vehicles
Blockchain will not suit all IoT security and contract requirements. That’s because it’s: Complex, heavy processing load, not yet fully commercialized, private blockchain space is fragmented, need for supporting regulatory/legal frameworks Autonomous vehicles.
Industrial IoT (IIoT):
It’s becoming a core focus for the market – and an important testbed for 5G. Requires ultra reliable and very low latency.
IIoT is moving beyond efficiency gains:
• IIoT will grow in importance in 2019
• Drivers: efficiency and margins, competitive positioning, ‘job lots of one’
• Challenges: IT/OT integration, security, traditional business models
• Applications: simple asset tracking/monitoring to complex propositions (predictive maintenance, digital twin, robotics, autonomy)
• IoT, 5G, and AI form virtuous circle for industrial sector and factory
• Private LTE as another enabler (Steve Bell of Heavy Reading was very optimistic on this during the Thursday morning, May 17th round table discussion on 5G and LTE for IoT). So is this author!
IoT value chain: evolution from ‘platform providers’ to ‘end-to-end
solution providers,’ simplifying the buying process. An end-to-end solution requires: sensors/devices/hardware, connectivity, platform (connectivity and device control/management), applications, analytics, integration.
Value chain evolution is also driving IoT business model innovation, for both enterprises and providers. For connectivity, this includes: flat rate IoT connectivity pricing (e.g. $5 per year), bundled IoT device connectivity, alternative IoT connectivity providers (e.g. Sigfox, Zigbee mesh, BT mesh, etc), private LTE (licensed frequencies so not contention for bandwidth as with WiFi).
Summary and Recommendations:
- Enabling IoT technologies: 5G, LPWAN, edge, blockchain – developing
quickly – but shouldn’t be seen in isolation.
- IoT data usage & security: Focus of customer concern – stronger support,
simpler tools needed to deliver value through analytics, eventually AI.
- Vertical strategies: Industries face significant disruption – understand
how IoT will help your customer to transform and address these shifts.
- New IoT business models: increasingly sophisticated – end customers
very interested, but need help to understand them, manage risk.
II. LPWAN Market Forecast from Global Market Insights, Inc.
The LPWAN market is set to grow from its current market value of more than $1.5 billion (€1.3 billion) to over $65 billion (€58.2 billion) by 2025, according to a new research report by Global Market Insights, Inc.
Low power wide area network market growth is driven by the growing deployment of LPWA technologies, including LoRa, NB-IoT, and LTE-M, offering a wide range of connectivity options to enterprises. These technologies provide broader network coverage and better battery life to connect various devices. LPWAN networks are becoming very popular among enterprises to support various IoT use cases for verticals including healthcare, manufacturing, agriculture, logistics, and utilities.
For instance, the rising penetration of Industrial IoT (IIoT) in the manufacturing industry has increased the demand for LPWA technologies, particularly NB-IoT and LTE-M, to enable reliable machine-to-machine communication. Industrial IoT connections are expected to increase nearly five times between 2016 and 2025, from 2.4 billion to around 14 billion connections.
By deploying LPWAN connections, manufacturing companies can increase their operational efficiencies to drive high productivity. Another factor fuelling the LPWAN market growth is increasing investments by companies in LPWAN technologies. For instance, in June 2017, Cisco contributed to a US$ 75 million Series D funding round for Actility, a LPWAN startup. Cisco’s investments in Actility enabled it to accelerate the development of IoT solutions.
The LPWAN platforms held a major market share of over 70% in 2018 owing to the deployment of various platforms, including NB-IoT, LoRaWAN, Sigfox, and LTE-M. Massive IoT deployments in various industry verticals, including utilities, manufacturing, transportation, and healthcare, has increased the demand for LPWAN platforms to support connected devices requiring low power consumption, long range, and low costs. Among all the platforms, LoRaWAN platforms held the highest market share of over 50% in 2018 as they use unlicensed spectrum and are best suited for applications that generate low traffic and require low-cost sensors.
In the services segment, the managed services segment is expected to hold low power wide area network market share of around over 30% in 2025. Managed services enable organisations to accelerate the deployment of LPWAN and reduce the time & expenses spent on training the IT staff. The on-premise deployment model is expected to grow at a CAGR of over 50% over the projected timeline. The demand for this deployment model will increase as it enables organisations to build & manage their own LPWAN for IoT-based applications.
Ovum’s latest video on IoT with Alexandra Rehak: https://ovum.informa.com/products-and-services/research-services/internet-of-things
T-Mobile USA was the first U.S. wireless carrier to provide nationwide NB-IoT coverage last July. The “uncarrier” is very proud to have 81 million cellular customers and a very low churn rate. The company has invested billions of dollars in the last five years to modernize and transform its wireless network. As of February 7, 2019, T-Mobile’s LTE network now covers 325 million people, according to a recent earning report..
During his May 14th 2019 IoT World keynote, Balaji Sridharan, VP of IoT & M2M at T-Mobile US, described the challenges to overcome to realize massive IoT at scale and T-Mobile’s wireless networks that might be used for three different classes of IoT connectivity. Balaji also enumerate key features and attributes of NB-IoT and showed an interesting comparison chart of LPWANs. He said its 600 MHz spectrum is deployed throughout the U.S. 
Note 1. During its April 2019 earnings call, CTO Neville Ray said: “we have over 1 million square miles of 600 megahertz LTE rolled out. It’s working in 44 states and Puerto Rico. And we have a 100 million covered PoPs on 600 megahertz LTE. So we’ve said that in 2020, we’ll have a nationwide footprint on 5G.
IoT Classification and Characteristics [from Ericsson white paper]:
Massive IoT: Connecting billions of devices, small amounts of data volumes, (mostly) sent infrequently, low power required for long battery life (years not days, weeks or months).
Broadband IoT will need high throughput and/or low latency.; large data volumes.
Critical IoT will require ultra high reliability/availability and very low latency. Industrial automation (and robotic surgery) will require time sensitive information delivery and precise positioning of devices.
Industrial Automation is tailored for advanced industrial automation in conjunction with the other cellular IoT segments. It includes Radio Access Network (RAN) capabilities to facilitate the support of deterministic networks which, together with ethernet-based protocols and other industrial protocols, will enable many advanced industrial automation applications.
These applications have extremely demanding connectivity requirements and require very accurate indoor positioning and distinct architecture and security attributes. Industrial Automation IoT reinforced by Critical IoT connectivity is the key enabler for the full digitalization of Industry 4.0 for the world’s manufacturers, the Oil and Gas sectors as well as smart grid components for energy distribution companies.
Above chart courtesy of Ericsson.
T-Mo has wireless networks to meet all of the above IoT market segmants. In particular, NB-IoT, 4G-LTE, and (soon) 5G.
Challenges to overcome for Massive IoT:
- Support billions of devices at scale (that includes provisioning and (re) configuration).
- Long battery life (via low power consumption of devices/things)
- Coverage enhancements
- Global reach
NB-IoT meets the requirements for Massive IoT:
Operates in guard bands of T-Mobile’s LTE network. 
Wide range of devices to be connected to the Internet using existing mobile networks (rather then new network infrastructure).
Key benefits include: better battery life (again via low power consumption for connectivity), cheaper device costs ($5 certified NB-IoT module is now available), optimized data usage, reduced IP header and ability to transmit/receive non-IP data (which results in 30% to 40% less data transmission than if traditional IP was used), enhanced security via GSMA standards, licensed spectrum (no interference),, SIM based, and encryption.
Balaji said: “Improved network coverage is achieved via repetitions, which are used to enhance coverage.” [3.]
Note 2. NB-IoT can also be implemented in “standalone” for deployments in dedicated spectrum.
Note 3. From an IEEE published paper titled: Enhancing Coverage in Narrow Band-IoT Using Machine Learning:
NB-IoT needs only a small portion of the existing available cellular spectrum to operate without interfering with it. Hence, NB-IoT provides more reliability and more quality of service (QoS) as it operates in regulated spectrum. Moreover, NB-IoT uses existing cellular network infrastructure, which reduces the deployment costs.
However, since repeating transmission data and control signals has been selected as a major solution to enhance coverage of NB-IoT systems, this leads to reducing the system throughput and thereby a spectral efficiency loss.
Here’s a comparison chart showing: 2G, licensed spectrum NB-IoT vs unlicensed band Sigfox and LoRa (WAN):
Chart courtesy of T-Mobile USA
Balaji highlighted several Massive IoT applications that could effectively use NB-IoT for connectivity. Those include: asset tracking, smart metering, smart lighting, equipment monitoring, smart packaging, and intelligent waste management.
In addition to the $5 NB-IoT modules now available Balaji revealed T-Mo has a $5/year NB-IoT service plan.
T-Mo hosted the U.S.’ first NB-IoT Hackathon to develop IoT applications that would leverage NB-IoT as a viable wireless network. Sensing the presene of forest fires was an example he provided.
T-Mo partnered with Twillio to get NB-IoT to market. They created a new development kit that allowed Hackathon participants to access the NB-IoT network. [4.]
Note 4. More than 100 new and seasoned developers descended on T-Mobile HQ to help shape the future of NB-IoT at the Hackathon. 20 creative and unique IoT concepts for prospective IoT solutions emerged that could leverage the low cost and power efficiency of NB-IoT and its reliability over long distances.
U.S. Carrier Comparison for NB-IoT Deployments:
T-Mobile launched its NB-IoT network last July. AT&T’s NB-IoT network went live two weeks ago. Sprint said it is testing NB-IoT technology, but it plans to merge with T-Mobile in the not-too-distant future so may not roll out its own NB-IoT offering.
NB-IoT Chipset Forecast:
Research & Markets predicts the NB-IoT chipset market is expected to grow from USD 272 million in 2019 to USD 2,002 million by 2024 at a CAGR of 49.1%.
Verizon announced yesterday that its NB-IoT network is now available coast-to-coast covering more than 92% of the U.S. population. NB-IoT focuses on applications needing data rates below 100K bits/sec which makes it ideal for solutions that aren’t designed to be always mobile such as alarm panels, environmental sensors, industrial appliances, factory equipment and parking meters.
NB-IoT is specifically designed for IoT applications that could benefit from access to lower cost chipsets, superior coverage and significantly prolonged battery life. The NB-IoT Network provides the ability to manage both IP and non-IP data traffic. This ability to handle non-IP data traffic allows for the creation of much simpler and more cost-effective IoT devices which are ideal for solutions that aren’t designed to be always mobile such as alarm panels, environmental sensors, industrial appliances, factory equipment and parking meters.
Other viable use cases for NB-IoT include:
- Smart cities – improve citizen experience and municipal operations through parking sensors, waste management and smart lighting.
- Smart buildings – enhance building safety and incident response times through connected smoke detectors including regular auto-test, battery check and real-time alerts to the relevant parties in case of fire.
- Industrial – improved machinery maintenance cycles and factory safety through machinery control such as equipment status, factory control, and process and safety monitoring.
- Environment monitoring – increase focus on environmental responsibility through status reporting of manhole covers, fire hydrants and chemical emission levels.
- Agricultural – improve efficiency in the agricultural industry with livestock tracker, connected greenhouse, stationary tracking and monitoring of air quality, humidity, moisture, temperature, and weather conditions of air and soil.
- Asset Tracking – improve efficiency and decrease costs by using pallet tracking and geo-fencing.
- Utilities – improve efficiency and decrease waste by using gas and water metering, including smart meter consumption tracking and pipeline monitoring.
Verizon has partnered with chipset and module manufacturers for its NB-IoT network. The carrier said three module makers – Telit, SIM-COM and Quectel, are in the final stages of testing modules, and will be available for use in IoT development on the new network.
NB-IoT adds another connection option for businesses:
Verizon maintains a strong leadership position in IoT technology and solutions with a history of providing customers with many options to meet their needs including nationwide deployment of 4G LTE, LTE Cat 1, and LTE Cat M1 networks. While CAT-M1 targets a wide range of applications for business customers such as wearables, fleet and asset management, NB-IoT focuses on applications needing data rates below 100 kbps. NB-IoT technology occupies a dedicated frequency of 180 kHz bandwidth designated for IoT applications which does not share spectrum resources with commercial smartphone traffic.
“We have engineered our NB-IoT network in the Guard Band of our spectrum. By using the more complex Guard Band solution for our Narrow Band IoT Network, we are demonstrating very efficient use of spectrum assets while giving customers the breadth of options they need to best meet their needs. This strategic use of spectrum is one of the many variables that has resulted in Verizon’s continued performance superiority and strong capital management over the years,” said Bill Stone, Vice President of Technology Development and Planning at Verizon.
During his IoT World Tuesday keynote speech, Shamik Basu, Director of IoT Products at Verizon, said that massive IoT sensor networks could be deployed today using Verizon’s NB-IoT or LTE-M networks. “They make critical infrastructure intelligent….NB-IoT and LTE-M will co-exist in some networks (i.e. the IoT device module supports both as does the wireless base station). You don’t need gateways to deploy massive sensor networks today.”
Verizon is ready to support developers and manage commercial traffic:
Verizon continues to expand its already robust ecosystem of partners to help develop, bring to market, connect and manage IoT solutions. Verizon has partnered with leading chipset and module manufacturers so that IoT makers can immediately start working towards building their devices for the Verizon NB-IoT network. Three module manufacturers in final stages of testing – Telit, SIM-COM and Quectel – have modules on Verizon’s Network which are ready to be used in development efforts. Additionally, customers will be able to manage their connections securely using the integrated ThingSpace platform that supports connectivity management, location and device security.
Verizon has announced an initial NB-IoT Standard Price Plan, offering 50 KB of data with a $1.00 monthly access fee per device. The data allowance can be shared with other NB-IoT devices on the same price plan and on the same account.
Verizon at IoT World 2019, Santa Clara, CA: Booth 510
Verizon’s NB IoT demo, permits conference attendees to experience Verizon’s NB IoT network in action.
At Verizon’s 5G for enterprise demo, conference attendees will explore the possibilities that will result from the ultra-low latency and massively scalable characteristics of the Verizon’s 5G technology.
Mixed reality developer Arvizio will be on hand demonstrating their MR Studio mixed reality platform for XR experiences on Microsoft HoloLens. Arvizio has converged Verizon’s ThingSpace IoT platform and augmented/mixed reality technologies to transform how businesses connect and use the data flow from IoT devices.
At the ThingSpace Ready demo, conference attendees will learn about ThingSpace Ready, Verizon’s IoT Accelerator program, which enables easier IoT onboarding with Verizon. We curated partnerships with design houses, system integrators, module/modem providers, and SIM manufacturers, so OEMs (device makers) get easy access to the hardware and solutions needed to create the next generation of IoT devices, all with upfront and transparent pricing.
At the ThingSpace Manage demo, conference attendees will learn how Verizon’s ThingSpace Manage platform will enable customers to provision, monitor, diagnose and control their IoT devices using connectivity APIs, as well as value-added microservices. The exhibit will demonstrate key capabilities on the ThingSpace Manage Portal such as device activation, network diagnostics, and coarse location. A demonstration of SIM-secure will also showcase how Verizon can help protect devices if the SIM are removed.
At the Critical Asset Sensor demo, conference attendees will experience how Verizon made it simple for customers using public clouds to get the data they need to drive their businesses. Critical Asset Sensor is an Edge to Enterprise solution with 7 sensors, GPS, LTE-M connectivity, and the ThingSpace platform with APIs to consume data into Amazon Web Services or any other cloud platform that drives your business.
Deploying IoT Massive Sensor Networks:
In his IoT World keynote, Mr. Basu suggested that companies deploying IoT massive sensor networks match the technology to their needs. Those needs might include: long battery life (10+ years), long range (network) coverage, ubiquitous, low improvement cost, security, reliability/availability, and longevity. Putting a NB-IoT interface in a sensor module facilitates data collection in real time which can then be tabulated and analyzed at the edge or in the cloud.
Shamik recommended Verizon’s ThingSpace to manage a rich suite of services for IoT. Companies can then monetize their IoT solutions and use public clouds, like Amazon Web Services (AWS). By pre-integrating software on development kits pre-approved by Verizon and Amazon, developers have all the key building blocks to create an IoT solution out of the box. AWS’s reliability and scalability make it an ideal foundation for your solution.
The ThingSpace Cloud Connectors program allows you to build a powerful IoT solution by combining your AWS solution, the Verizon network and ThingSpace device lifecycle management tools.
In summary, NB-IoT combined with Verizon’s ThingSpace IoT accelerator/ management platform, new pricing and rich ecosystem of partners who have modules ready for development, enterprise customers have the ability to bring unique NB-IoT solutions to market quickly.