ITU-R WP 5D new reports on IMT for PPDR applications, Terrestrial IMT for Cellular-Vehicle-to-Everything, 6G Vision & more

At its March 2021 virtual meeting, ITU-R WP5D completed a revision of the report ITU-R M.2291-1The use of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) for broadband Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) applications includes the IMT-2020 and 5G aspects in this public safety focused report to update the current report which was only based on IMT-Advanced 3GPP LTE technology. This revision was completed by ITU-R WP 5D and forwarded to Study Group 5 for action when they next meet in November 2021.

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ITU-R M.[IMT.C-V2X] – The use of the terrestrial component of IMT systems for Cellular-Vehicle-to-Everything

WP 5D is also developing a draft new report ITU-R M.[IMT.C-V2X] – The use of the terrestrial component of IMT systems for Cellular-Vehicle-to-Everything is intended to addresses the mutual relationship between IMT technologies and Cellular-Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) as a specific application and elements of functions in IMT technologies that are used to realize C-V2X application.

Further, the report provides details on Overview on Usage of IMT technology, use cases, relationship between IMT and C-V2X, characteristics and capabilities supported by IMT, and case studies associated with C-V2X for the various scenarios including eMBB, mMTC, and URLLC of terrestrial component of IMT. 

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Development of draft new report ITU-R M.[IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS TOWARDS 2030 AND BEYOND]

The draft new Report ITU-R M.[IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS TOWARDS 2030 AND BEYOND] is intended as a precursor to a “beyond IMT-2020” vision document for 6G that ITU-R WP 5D intends to produce in 2022. This trends report will assess where the technology is, and the current uses are for IMT-2020/5G and seek to identify the gaps and technical enablers anticipated to be necessary in the 2030 timeframe.

Furthermore, the expectation is that this Report will energize the academic and technology community to engage in the research and developments necessary to underpin a “beyond IMT-2020 and 6G view) as just focusing on new uses cases is insufficient to build such a future and the technology evolution requires a long lead time to fruition. 

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Development of draft new report ITU-R M.[IMT TERRESTRIAL BROADBAND REMOTE COVERAGE]

The draft new Report ITU-R M.[IMT TERRESTRIAL BROADBAND REMOTE COVERAGE] – Terrestrial IMT for remote sparsely populated areas providing high data rate coverage is intended to provide details on scenarios associated with the provisioning of enhanced mobile broadband services to remote sparsely populated and underserved areas with a discussion on enhancements of user and network equipment.

It will distinguish between extending coverage on already deployed network and defining a use/case for deployment environment and is meant to meant to evaluate technical solutions required to extend the coverage of IMT system rather than discussing deployment layout for rural environments. The completion dates have been extended to the 39th WP 5D meeting (October 2021).

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Development of a draft new report ITU-R M.[IMT 2020.TDD.SYNCHRONIZATION]

The draft new report ITU-R [IMT2020.TDD.SYNCHRONIZATION] is intended to address the study of the aspects of synchronization operations of multiple IMT-2020 TDD networks in close proximity using the same frequency band, including analyses of coexistence issues when IMT operators utilize different synchronization modes, performance evaluation under different synchronization modes, and coexistence mitigation strategies.

The Report considers the further impacts of the introduction of technical advancement such as active antenna systems, etc. The completion dates were extended to the 41st WP 5D meeting (June 2022).

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Source: Chairman’s Report 37th e-meeting of Working Party 5D (1-12 March 2021 – Virtual), April 13, 2021

ITU-R M.2150: Detailed specifications of the radio interfaces of IMT-2020

The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) has recently published Recommendation ITU-R M.2150 titled ‘Detailed specifications of the radio interfaces of IMT-2020.’   The newly published Recommendation, formerly called ‘IMT-2020.specs,’ represents a set of three terrestrial radio interface specifications which have been combined into a single document.

The current version of this Recommendation on IMT-2020 specifications (Recommendation ITU-R M.2150) contains 3 radio interface technologies: “3GPP 5G-SRIT”; “3GPP 5G-RIT” and “5Gi” (India/TSDSI). Those technologies are the basis for the implementation of 5G Radio Access Networks (RANs) around the world. After a period of 7-8 years of hard work across the industry, the evaluation of these 3 IMT-2020 technologies has culminated in an approval from ITU’s 193 Member States.

Two more radio interface proposals, submitted by ETSI/DECT Forum and Nufront, have been granted an exceptional review within the IMT-2020 process extension.  Based on consideration of additional material, if they successfully complete the evaluation process they will be included in a subsequent revision Recommendation ITU-R M.2150.

It is important to note that the frequencies/spectrum arrangements to be used are not specified in M.2150.  Instead they are contained in a yet to be completed revision of ITU-R M.1036:Frequency arrangements for implementation of the terrestrial component of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) in the bands identified for IMT in the Radio Regulations.’  

5G NR (New Radio) wireless mobile communications will bring higher data rates, reduced latency, and greater system capacity. The first implementation of 5G NR uses existing 4G LTE infrastructure in a non-standalone (NSA) mode.

A full 5G standalone (SA) mode that does not rely on LTE is being progressed by 3GPP which does not plan to liaise their documents to ITU-T.  Indeed, it appears that all non-radio aspects of IMT 2020 will be specified by 3GPP and network operators in conjunction with their 5G Core network suppliers.

To facilitate the smooth evolution from 4G LTE to 5G NR, the 5G NR standard offers the possibility of adapting to existing LTE deployments and sharing the spectrum used exclusively by LTE today. The enabling mechanism, known as “dynamic spectrum sharing” (DSS), allows 5G NR and 4G LTE to coexist while using the same spectrum and as such allowing network operators a smooth transition from LTE to 5G NR – presenting one option for an economically viable evolution.

ITU-R Working Party 5D has invited organizations within and external to the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) to provide inputs for its June and October meetings in 2021, which will help the development of the forthcoming report “Future Technology Trends towards 2030 and beyond.” A first draft of this new report contains a list of driving factors in the design of IMT technology, as well as a list of possible technologies to enhance the performance and precision of both the radio interface and radio network.

References:

https://www.itu.int/en/myitu/News/2021/02/02/09/20/Beyond-5G-IMT-2020-update-new-Recommendation

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx

Learn more about IMT-2020 on the relevant website and the accompanying FAQ. If you have particular technical or IMT-process related questions, you can also approach the ITU-R SG 5 Counsellor.

 

IMT 2020.SPECS approved by ITU-R but may not meet 5G performance requirements; no 5G frequencies (revision of M.1036); 5G non-radio aspects not included

ITU-R Approves IMT 2020.SPECS:

At it’s November 23rd meeting, ITU-R SG 5 approved WP5D’s draft recommendation IMT 2020.SPECS which is the first official 5G RAN standard. The document contains the description and implementation details for three new technologies that conform with the International Mobile Telecommunications 2020 (IMT-2020) vision, but this author (and others) do not believe they meet the ITU M.2410 Performance Requirements for the URLLC (ultra reliable, ultra low latency communications) 5G use case.  That is because 3GPP’s 5G NR enhancements for URLLC in the RAN had not been completed or performance tested when 3GPP Release 16 was frozen in early July 2020 (see detailed description below) and is therefore NOT included in the IMT 2020.SPECS detailed implementation for 5G NR.

The three Radio Interface (RIT)/Set of Radio Interface (SRIT) Technologies are: 3GPP 5G-SRIT and 3GPP 5G-RIT submitted by 3GPP (contains both Release 15 and 16 functionality), and 5Gi submitted by Telecommunications Standards Development Society India (TSDSI). The 3GPP submissions include support by China and South Korea, which had submitted their own RIT’s that were determined to be “technically identical” with 3GPP’s 5G NR submission so they were effectively combined into one RIT.

TSDSI’s RIT is based on the 3GPP 5G NR RIT with additional functionality to supportLow Mobility Large Cell” (LMLC).   The TSDSI-RIT incorporates India specific technology enhancements that can enable longer coverage for meeting the LMLC requirements. The TSDSI-RIT, which is mainly to address the LMLC requirements, exploits a new transmit waveform that increases cell range developed by research institutions in India (IIT Hyderabad, CEWiT and IIT Madras) and supported by several Indian companies. It enables low cost rural coverage. It has additional features which enable higher spectrum efficiency and improved latency. TSDSI-RIT is a key enabler for 5G based rural broadband usage scenario in India and similarly placed geographies.

Author’s NOTEs:

1.  It is critically important to understand that IMT 2020.SPECs only apply to the 5G RAN and NOT the 5G core network or any other non-radio aspects of 5G.  Also, that the frequencies to be used for 5G RAN are specified in a YET TO BE COMPLETED revision to ITU M.1036 recommendation  which should include WRC 19 frequency arrangements (especially for mmWave spectrum).

–>That means there are no official guidelines on what frequencies might be used with any of the IMT 2020 RITs specified.

2.  Here’s a description of the ITU-R recommendations that were used for evaluation of IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT submissions to ITU-R WP5D:

  • ITU-R M.2410 describes key requirements related to the minimum technical performance of IMT-2020 candidate radio interface technologies.
  • ITU-R M.2411 deals with the requirements, evaluation criteria, and submission templates, providing service, spectrum, and technical performance requirements.
  • ITU-R M.2412 provides guidelines for the procedure, the methodology, and the criteria (technical, spectrum, and service) to be used in the IMT 2020 evaluation process.

With these documents, the evaluation procedure is designed in such a way that the overall performance of the candidate RITs/SRITs is fairly and equally assessed on a technical basis, ensuring that the overall IMT-2020 objectives are met.

Reference:

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/submission-eval.aspx

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From the ITU Press Release:

During the multi-year development and evaluation process by the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R), these technologies were deemed to be sufficiently detailed to enable worldwide compatibility of operation and equipment, including roaming.

The outcome of this first release of IMT-2020 supporting 5G is a set of terrestrial radio interface specifications which are incorporated into a global standard in the ITU-R Recommendation titled ‘Detailed specifications of the radio interfaces of IMT-2020.’ This is in final approval to the 193 Member States of ITU.

“IMT-2020 specifications for the fifth generation of mobile communications (5G) will be the backbone of tomorrow’s digital economy, transforming lives and leading industry and society into the automated and intelligent world,” said Houlin Zhao, ITU Secretary-General. “5G will enable much faster data speeds, reliable connectivity and low latency to international mobile telecommunications (IMT) — all needed for our new global communications ecosystem of connected devices sending vast amounts of data via ultrafast broadband.”
Mario Maniewicz, Director of the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau, said: “The successful completion of the evaluation process and the release of this global standard is a significant milestone for the global telecommunication industry and its users. 5G technologies will further enrich the worldwide communications ecosystem, expand the range of innovative applications and support the burgeoning Internet of Things, including machine-to-machine communication.”

The evaluation of the candidate technologies was not carried out by ITU-R alone. It was a highly collaborative process with substantial input from and coordination with ITU Member States, equipment manufacturers, network operators, and involved national, regional, and international standards development organizations, partnerships, the academic community and fora, since ITU-R provides a unique global framework to discuss the capabilities of new radio technologies.

In early 2012, ITU initiated the development of “IMT for 2020 and beyond”, setting the stage for 5G research activities and in 2015 established the vision and requirements for the globalization of 5G. Under ITU’s ongoing IMT programme, ITU membership is continuing its long-standing contribution to mobile communications, facilitating its mission to be “committed to connecting the world.“​

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Two Other IMT 2020 Radio Inerface Technologies being evaluated by ITU-R WP 5D:
In addition to the three RIT/SRITs approved in this first version of IMT 2020.SPECS, there are two additional RITs from DECT/ETSI IMT-2020/17(Rev 1) and Nufront (IMT-2020/18(Rev 1) that are being re-evaluated by ITU-R WP 5D with respect to “independent evaluation group” conformance testing.  If approved, those RITs will be included in a second version of IMT 2020.SPECS to be ratified sometime in 2021.   Representatives from those two camps state that their IMT 2020 RIT submissions really do meet the low latency requirements in M.2410 [1.], whereas the 3GPP RIT does not and won’t meet those requirements for quite some time.

Note 1.  For the URLLC use case, M.2410 specifies a minimum of 1 msec in the data plane and 10 ms in the control plane for latency (1 way in the RAN).  Actual latency (1-way) is the sum of latency in the RAN, core network, and edge network (if any).

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3GPP Release 16 5G NR-URLLC in the RAN spec status as of as of October 11, 2020: 

  • RP-191584 5G NR Physical Layer Enhancements for Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communication (URLLC)  was 53% complete
  • RP-190726 Performance part: Physical Layer Enhancements for NR Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communication (URLLC) was 0% complete

“In Release 15 the basic support for URLLC was introduced with TTI structures for low latency as well as methods for improved reliability. Use cases with tighter requirements, e.g. higher reliability up to 1E-6 and short latency in the order of 0.5 to 1ms, have been identified as important areas for NR. This work item [1] was approved based on the outcome of the study items as shown in TR 38.824 [2] and TR 38.825 [3].

This work item specifies PDCCH enhancements, UCI enhancements, PUSCH enhancements, enhanced inter UE TX prioritization/multiplexing and enhanced UL configured grant transmission.”

References:

https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/WORK_PLAN/

https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3493

(Sept 15, 2020 version of Release 16 Description; Summary of Rel-16 Work Items)

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The Role of ITU-R:

International Telecommunications Union (ITU), formerly CCITT, is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs), fostering innovation among 193 member states. For more than 150 years, ITU has been coordinating the radio spectrum, establishing standards that foster connectivity globally across multiple technology systems. And for the past 30 years, the ITU Radiocommunication sector (ITU-R) has been coordinating efforts with governments and industries to develop unified global broadband multimedia international mobile telecommunications systems, also known as IMT.

ITU-R plays an important role in achieving the objective of global harmonization and wide industry support for each generation of mobile communication technologies. 2G in the 1990s was the first generation of digital mobile communication system. These technologies provided dramatically enhanced capabilities relative to previous analog technologies, beginning the ongoing prevalence of mobile communication in our daily life. Despite the success of 2G during that era, the fragmented technology standards were incompatible for purposes of global roaming and economies of scale.

Global operation and economies of scale are key requirements for the success of mobile telecommunication systems. In order to achieve this goal, ITU-R established the concept of IMT, which includes a harmonized timeframe for future development, taking into account technical, operational, and spectrum-related aspects. Since then, ITU-R has been striving for harmonized global standards all through the process of IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced.

ITU-R Progress from 2G to 5G  Credit Dell’Oro Group

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References:

https://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/Pages/pr26-2020-evaluation-global-affirmation-imt-2020-5g.aspx

https://www.itu.int/pub/R-REP-M.2410

Executive Summary: IMT-2020.SPECS defined, submission status, and 3GPP’s RIT submissions

5G Specifications (3GPP), 5G Radio Standard (IMT 2020) and Standard Essential Patents

https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=349

8https://www.itu.int/md/R15-IMT.2020-C-0021/en

Harmonized ITU IMT-2020 Standards of 3GPP 5G Technologies Lay The Foundation for a Successful Global Ecosystem

 

Only domestic network equipment may be used for 5G in Russia; Revision of ITU-R M.1036 urgently needed

Russian state radio frequencies commission (SRFC) has decided that only equipment of domestic origin may be use for the development of 5G in the country, reports Comnews Russia citing Oleg Ivanov, deputy minister in the Ministry of Digitization. Comnews.ru stated:

When deploying 5G in Russia, only domestic network equipment should be used. Most likely, during the construction of Internet of Things networks, base stations with the status of domestic equipment will be needed. This follows from the results of yesterday’s meeting of the SCRF.

“Naturally, domestic equipment will be used. This is a common decision across the entire 5G spectrum. will use exclusively domestic equipment. There is such a solution. ” He added that according to the principle of technical neutrality, operators will be able to build a 5G network in all frequency bands in which they already have the right to build LTE networks.

“In connection with the general trend for domestic equipment, they were given sufficient time to resolve this issue. We will insist [on the exclusive use of domestic IoT base stations], and then the decision is up to the management,” added Oleg Ivanov.

A list of frequencies for 5G services for Russia has been approved. The frequency ranges are: 694-790 МHz, 2,300-2,400 МHz, 2,570-2,620 МHz, 4,400-4,990 МHz and 24.25-27.5 GHz. The 3,400-3,800 MHz band is absent from the list.

Rostec has been identified as the basic contractor to ensure the production of domestic equipment for 5G networks. The NIIR representative at the meeting said that tests of the Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) technology, which will enable the deployment of 5G on the operators’ existing frequencies for 2G, 3G and 4G, are planned to be carried out on the commercial network in December 2020 and completed by March 2021, submitting the results to the SCRF no later than June 2021. He noted that the testing uses equipment from Nokia, Huawei and Ericsson.

Last week, a roadmap for the development of 5G in Russia was approved, according to which the delivery of domestic 5G equipment will begin in 2024 (see ComNews news of November 20, 2020). The press service of PJSC MegaFon explained: “The clarification of the SCRF has been made in accordance with the provisions of the roadmap. Taking into account the decisions made, we forecast a delay in the introduction of 5G technology in Russia for five to six years. According to our data, at the moment, services based on 5G are presented over than 100 operators in the world. ”

PJSC “MTS” is ready to purchase competitive Russian equipment with the required characteristics, quality and prices. “The main thing is that this does not lead to a lag in the deployment of 5G in Russia. The company regularly comes up with initiatives in this direction. In particular, in December 2019, MTS signed an agreement with the Element group of companies and Skoltech on the development and production of 5G in Russia -equipment based on international open radio access standards of the Open RAN project, and in October this year, within the framework of this project, a 5G pilot zone was opened in Skolkovo. We are also working on other projects to test domestic equipment, “the press service said. MTS to the ComNews correspondent.

Igor Guryanov, General Director of Spectrum Management LLC, believes that even if we assume the readiness of the entire line of domestically produced radio access equipment on the SA architecture in 2023, all existing networks in Russia are now working with the NSA architecture, and for the transition to a new architecture on new equipment, time. “Therefore, taking into account the announced plans for the readiness of domestic equipment, full-scale 5G networks are unlikely to appear before 2025. Some dedicated 5G networks without the baggage of already operating LTE networks and without the need to work in many bands at once may appear earlier,” Igor Guryanov comments. a solution for 5G networks is possible if you make efforts in terms of time and funding comparable to those of the largest manufacturers of telecommunications equipment. For this reason, if domestic equipment appears, then most likely it will be in the form of integration and refinement of open marketable components of the 5G solution, for example, within the Open RAN concept and similar concepts for the core and transport component of the network. And if the state insists on the “domesticity” of the equipment, then it would be correct not only to write down the requirements for import substitution, but also to define the requirements for open interfaces and criteria for classifying equipment as domestic when it is assembled from software and hardware components of foreign origin. “However, I am sure Igor Guryanov, even this path has a lot of problems associated with the complexity of the implementation of a commercial competitive product in the market of 5G network infrastructure. ” If the Open RAN concept and related processes stall in the USA, Europe and the developed countries of Asia, Russia will not be able to take advantage of open developments in this area for the so-called domestic equipment. In any case, even in advanced countries and operators, it will take at least several years to solve many problems related to the integration of open solutions, “concluded Igor Guryanov.

Vitaly Solonin, head of the Wireless Technologies Department at J’son & Partners Consulting, agrees: the requirement to build 5G networks in Russia exclusively on domestic equipment will delay the launch of such networks in the country for at least several more years. “The first contracts with operators for the supply of Russian base stations are planned to be concluded in 2023, but this is hard to believe, primarily due to the unavailability of domestic chipsets for 5G. 5G networks are the basis for the digitalization of many industries, transport, healthcare, education. Dozens of projects have been launched in the world, and maybe hundreds already, demonstrating the potential of 5G and the economic effect of this technology. ”According to J’son & Partners Consulting forecasts, by 2030.

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New Russian Private 5G Network:

Separately, Russian communications service provider Mobile TeleSystems (MTS) is ready to deploy an Ericsson-powered 5G-ready dedicated network for gold and silver producer Polymetal at the Nezhdaninskoye gold deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The network will be introduced at the end of 2020 and will be built on Ericsson Dedicated Networks solution. The network will provide critical communications infrastructure and the Internet of Things (IoT).

After successfully implementing a number of pilot projects with leading Russian enterprises and deploying Private LTE and 5G-ready networks for various industrial needs, MTS will build the first commercial Private LTE network in Russia for remote monitoring and managing critical processes in difficult geographic and weather conditions.  Together with Polymetal, one of the world’s largest producers of gold and silver, MTS will deploy Russia’s first 5G-ready Private network at the Nezhdaninskoye gold deposit.

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ITU recommendation M.1036 revision not completed:

In a contribution approved by ITU-R WP 5D to the November 23, 2020 ITU-R SG5 meeting, the Russian Federation stated that the development of a draft revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1036 (Frequency arrangements to be used for the terrestrial component of IMT), taking into account the WRC-19 decisions, is urgently needed.  The last few 5D meetings failed to consider proposals on amending this Recommendation.  The Russian Federation, along with this author, believe that the revision of ITU-R M.1036 is an urgent, critical issue that requires an additional 5D meeting to address.

It’s somewhat of a contradiction that ITU-R WP5D approved IMT 2020.specs (3GPP NR + TSDSI 5Gi for India) at its Nov 2020 meeting, but the Frequency WG was not in session so no action could be taken to revise M.1036. Hence, there are NO assigned frequencies/ arrangements for terrestrial 5G!

References:

https://www.comnews.ru/content/211770/2020-11-24/2020-w48/5g-i-iot-gkrch-dala-start-importozamescheniyu

https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1036/en

https://www.everythingrf.com/News/details/11263-mts-to-launch-russia-s-first-commercial-private-5g-network-with-ericsson-equipment

 

Big Names Clash over 12 GHz for 5G despite it NOT being included in ITU M.1036 – Frequency Arrangements for IMT

Light Reading’s Mike Dano, says there is a contentious issue of  whether 5G networks should be permitted to use the 12 GHz band.  Apparently, the clash is between Charlie Erdogan’s Dish Network and Dell (YES) vs AT&T and Elon Musk’s SpaceX (NO).

Interestingly, 12 GHz (more precisely 12.2-12.7 GHz Band ) is NOT one of the frequency bands in the revision to ITU Recommendation M.1036-6, which specifies ALL frequency bands for the TERRESTRIAL component of IMT (including IMT 2020).

–>Please refer to Editor’s Note below for more on the M.1036 revision which may contain a cop-out clause to permit use of any frequency for IMT 2020.SPECS. Mike Dano wrote:

According to at least one high-level source involved in the debates, the FCC might make some kind of ruling on the topic as soon as December. A senior FCC official confirmed that the agency is considering allowing 5G in 12GHz, but declined to comment on whether the item would be addressed during the FCC’s December meeting.  Based on the increasingly contentious filings on the topic, it certainly appears that the fight over 12GHz is escalating.

In the U.S., the FCC exhaustively licensed the 12.2-12.7 GHz band in 2004-2005 timeframe through competitive bidding. The US terrestrial fixed licenses are co-primary with Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) and Non-Geostationary Orbit Fixed Satellite Service (NGSO FSS). In April 2016, a petition was filed seeking license modifications under section 316 to permit terrestrial mobile use in the band. Although the petition went through public notice/comment phases, no decisive action has been taken yet. Meanwhile, in August, 2017, FCC issued an inquiry into new opportunities in the mid-band spectrum between 3.7 GHz and 24 GHz. The combination of favorable propagation characteristics (as compared to bands above 24 GHz) and the opportunity for additional channel bandwidth (as compared to bands below 3.7 GHz), raises the potential of these bands to be used for next generation wireless services.

“The time has finally come for the commission to issue a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM),” wrote RS Access this week in a filing to the FCC. Dell’s private money management firm backs RS Access, which owns 12GHz licenses and has been pushing for rules allowing 5G operations in the band.  An NPRM by the FCC would signal a formal effort to decide on the matter, potentially sometime next year.

“Given the twin national imperatives of bringing spectrum to its highest and best use while unleashing spectrum for broadband connectivity, issuing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking will allow debate to move from hollow rhetoric to the types of pragmatic solutions the country needs to accelerate 5G investment and innovation,” echoed Dish Network in its FCC filing.

AT&T and SpaceX are firmly against the idea of the FCC taking action. Instead, they argue that 5G operations in the 12 GHz band would affect their existing activities in 12GHz (AT&T’s DirecTV satellite TV service uses a portion of the band, as does SpaceX’s Starlink satellite Internet service).

“The parties urged the commission to deny the MVDDS Petition [a coalition including Dish and RS Access] for rulemaking outright or, at most, to issue a notice of inquiry rather than a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking given the current state of the record in this proceeding,” wrote AT&T and SpaceX – along with Amazon’s Kepler Communications, satellite companies Intelsat and SES, and bankrupt OneWeb – in their joint FCC filing. A note at the end stated: “See MVDDS 5G Coalition Petition for Rulemaking to Permit MVDDS Use of the 12.2-12.7 GHz Band for Two-Way Mobile Broadband Service, RM-11768 (filed Apr. 26, 2016) (“MVDDS Petition”).”

12 GHz proponents were hoping the FCC would discuss that issue at its November meeting.  That’s unlikely as the main agenda item for that meeting will be to free up the 5.9GHz band for unlicensed operations as well as vehicle-to-vehicle communications using the C-V2X standard.

Dano concludes as follows:

The heavyweights involved in the 12 GHz proceeding are pulling out all the stops in the hopes they can get the FCC to act on one last contentious piece of spectrum policy before Biden begins his first term or President Trump begins his second. After all, Trump’s current FCC chairman, Pai, has not said whether he will stay on at the agency for Trump’s second term.

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Editor’s Note:  IMT 2020 Frequency Free for All?

At the conclusion of its Oct 2020 meeting, ITU-R WP5D could NOT agree on revision of draft recommendation M.1036-6 which specifies frequency arrangements to be used with the terrestrial component of IMT, including IMT 2020.SPECS. So that document has yet to be sent to ITU-R SG5 for approval.

The 5D Frequency Aspects WG Oct 2020  report stated:
“The current version of the draft revision with these further proposed edits is contained in document 5D/TEMP/243(Rev.1) and Editor’s Notes have been included in the document to clarify the current situation.”

“Looking at the current situation with some of the critical and urgent deliverables of WG Spectrum Aspects & WRC-23 Preparations, it is clear that whilst progress has been made in some less controversial areas, there are a significant number of areas where very diverging and sometimes polarized views remain. It is the view of the WG Chair that the current situation with such polarized views and no room for compromise solutions is disappointing and that we cannot continue with this approach at the next meeting if we want to be successful in completing these critical outputs by the required deadlines. We must all put more efforts into finding efficient ways to advance the discussions and in particular to focus on middle ground and compromise solutions rather than repeating initial positions.”

Furthermore, the UNAPPROVED draft revision to M.1036-6 has several cop-outs.  For example:
“That Recommendations ITU‑R M.1457, ITU‑R M.2012 and ITU‑R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] contain external references to information on operating bands for IMT technologies which may go beyond the information in Recommendation ITU-R М.1036 and may cover broader frequency ranges as well as further uplink/downlink combinations” OR for ONLY IMT 2020.SPECS:

“That Recommendations ITU‑R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] contains external references to information on operating bands for IMT technologies which may go beyond the information in Recommendation М.1036 and may cover broader frequency ranges as well as further uplink/downlink combinations.”

Note also, that the hotly debated 12 GHz frequency band the Dish and Dell are proposing for 5G is NOT contained in the draft revision to ITU-R M.1036-6.  But the cop-out disclaimer above, would permit 12 GHz and any other frequency to be used for IMT 2020, which would obviously negate the purpose and intent of that ITU recommendation.

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References:

https://www.lightreading.com/iot/5g-skirmishes-at-12ghz-may-escalate-into-all-out-spectrum-war/d/d-id/765009?

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/5g-spectrum-series-what-happening-12-ghz-shahed-mazumder/?articleId=6698577775151915008

TSDSI’s 5G Radio Interface spec advances to final step of IMT-2020.SPECS standard

Telecommunications Standards Development Society of India (TSDSI)’s 5G Radio Interface Technology (RIT) has met step 7 of an 8 step process of ITU-R WP5D, thereby paving the way for its inclusion in the IMT-2020.SPECS.   That impressive accomplishment was achieved at the ITU-R WP5D virtual meeting #35e which concluded on July 9, 2020.  From the WP 5D Technology WG meeting report:  “The RIT proposed in IMT-2020/19(Rev.1) (TSDSI) also passed Step 7 as “TSDSI RIT.”

As a penultimate  step, the description of the TSDSI technology has been included in the draft IMT-2020 specification document.  The TSDSI RIT is specified in Annex III. of the draft IMT-2020.SPECS standard, which is expected to be finalized at the WP5D meetings to be held in October and November 2020. Final approval is expected at the ITU-R SG 5 meeting November 23-24, 2020.

The TSDSI 5G RIT specification was described in a July 5, 2019 IEEE Techblog post.  The ITU-R had earlier adopted the Low-Mobility-Large-Cell (LMLC) use case proposed by TSDSI as a mandatory 5G requirement in 2017. This test case addresses the problem of rural coverage by mandating large cell sizes in a rural terrain and scattered areas in developing as well as developed countries. Several countries supported this as they saw a similar need in their jurisdictions as well.

LMLC fulfills the requirements of affordable connectivity in rural, remote and sparsely populated areas. Enhanced cell coverage enabled by this spec, will be of great value in countries and regions that rely heavily on mobile technologies for connectivity but cannot afford dense deployment of base stations due to lack of deep fiber penetration,  poor economics and challenges of geographical terrain.

Photo Credit:  TSDSI

TSDSI successfully introduced an indigenously developed 5G candidate Radio Interface Technology (RIT), compatible with 3GPP’s 5G NR IMT-2020 RIT submission, at the ITU-R WP5D meeting in July, 2019 (as noted in the above referenced IEEE Techblog post).  TSDI’s RIT incorporates India-specific technology enhancements that can enable larger coverage for meeting the LMLC requirements. It exploits a new transmit waveform that increases cell range developed by research institutions in India (IIT Hyderabad, CEWiT and IIT Madras) and supported by several Indian tech companies. It enables low-cost rural coverage and has additional features which enable higher spectrum efficiency and improved latency.

From TSDSI:  Acceptance of TSDSI RIT as a 5G radio interface standard, a first for India, catapults India into the elite club of countries with expertise in defining global standards. It is a trailblazer that establishes India’s potential to deliver more such solutions that are appropriate to the specific requirements of the developing world and rely on indigenously developed technologies – Design Local, Deploy Global.

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Addendum:  Overview of TSDSI RIT

TSDSI RIT is a versatile radio interface that fulfills all the technical performance requirements of IMT 2020 across all the different test environments. This RIT focuses on connecting the next generation of devices and providing services across various sectors. In particular, this RIT focuses on:

1. Enhanced spectral efficiency and broadband access

2. Low latency communication

3. Support millions of IOT devices

4. Power efficiency

5. High speed connectivity

6. Large Coverage (in particular for Rural areas)

7. Support multiple frequency bands including mmWave spectrum

While, the current specifications provide a robust RIT, the specification also provides a framework on which future enhancements can be supported, providing a future-proof technology. In the following sections, we provide a basic description of the RIT. The complete details of the RIT can be found in the specification document IMT-2020/20 (ITU TIES account required for access).

References:

India’s TSDSI candidate IMT 2020 RIT with Low Mobility Large Cell (LMLC) for rural coverage of 5G services

Executive Summary: IMT-2020.SPECS defined, submission status (?), and 3GPP’s 2 RIT submissions

Reliance Jio claim: Complete 5G solution from scratch with 100% home grown technologies

 

Executive Summary: IMT-2020.SPECS defined, submission status, and 3GPP’s RIT submissions

Introduction – IMT-2020.SPECS:

The forthcoming ITU-R recommendation “IMT-2020.SPECS” identifies the terrestrial radio interface technologies of International Mobile Telecommunications-2020 (IMT-2020) and provides the detailed radio interface specifications.

IMPORTANT: This new ITU-R standard will NOT include IMT 2020 non-radio aspects, such as 5G Core Network, Signaling, Network Slicing, Virtualization, Network Management/Maintenance, Security/Privacy, Fault Detection/Recovery, Codecs, Interworking, etc.

This new recommendation was developed by ITU-R WP5D (aka 5D) over the last five years. It consists of IMT 2020 (5G) Radio Interface Technologies (RIT) and Sets of Radio Interface Technologies (SRIT).

The final IMT-2020.SPECS is expected to be approved in late November 2020 at the ITU-R SG 5 (parent of WP 5D) meeting.  Here’s the related ITU-R meeting schedule for the remainder of 2020:

WP 5D

36

5 October 20

16 October 20

Geneva

10 day meeting

WP 5D

36bis

17 November 20

19 November 20

Geneva

Focused WP 5D meeting on the technology aspects and related administrative activities for finalization of Step 8 of the IMT-2020 process for draft new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS]

SG 5

23 November 20

24 November 20

Geneva

Anticipated dates

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IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT submission status:

IMT 2020 RIT submissions from 3GPP/China/Korea [1.], TSDSI [2], DECT/ETSI, and Nufront are all being considered by 5D.  The latter two submissions have defined their own version of 5G New Radio (NR) as they do NOT use 3GPP’s 5G NR.

Note 1.  ATIS found the China and Korea IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT submissions to be technically identical to 3GPPs.  Please see IMT-2020 Consensus Building and Decision by 5D for more detail.

Note 2.  The TSDSI submission uses 3GPP’s 5GNR but also ADDS functional capability to support Low Mobility Large Cell (LMLC).

->Hence, there are potentially three different 5G NRs (as the basis for the respective RIT submissions) that may be standardized in IMT-2020.SPECS if the DECT/ETSI and Nufront submissions achieve final approval from WP5D. 5D requested additional work for both DECT/ETSI and Nufront RIT submissions before they can be progressed to the next step at 5D’s October 2020 meeting.  Those submissions will NOT be included in the first IMT-2020.SPECS recommendation 5D will send to ITU-R SG5 in late November 2020.  If 5D subsequently approves them, they will be included in a revision of IMT-2020.SPECS in 2021.

At its July virtual meeting, 5D determined that the IMT-2020 candidate technology submission proposals from DECT/ETSI and Nufront will require additional evaluation to conclude their respective final assessment through Steps 6 and 7 of the current process. They will, therefore, on an exceptional basis continue in the process, rewinding to Step 4 in order to consider additional material.

– Candidate SRIT submission from ETSI (TC DECT) and DECT Forum (Acknowledgement of submission under Step 3 of the IMT-2020 process in IMT‑2020/17(Rev.1)).
– Candidate RIT submission from Nufront (Acknowledgement of submission under Step 3 of the IMT-2020 process in IMT-2020/18(Rev.1)).

The process extension for these two candidate technology submissions will not impact the schedule for the first release of Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] and the inclusion of the identified Proponent submissions identified below (IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT Submissions being progressed by 5D) that will proceed into Step 8.   If these two proponent submission satisfy 5D requirements, they might then be included in a 2021 revision of IMT-2020.SPECS, but they won’t be in the initial recommendation expected to be approved at the end of 2020.

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Sidebar: DECT-2020 NR

The “DECT-2020 NR” Radio Interface Technology (RIT) is designed to provide a slim but powerful technology foundation for wireless applications deployed in various use cases and markets. It utilizes the frequency bands below 6 GHz identified for International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT) in the ITU Radio Regulations.

The DECT-2020 radio technology includes, but is not limited to: Cordless Telephony, Audio Streaming Applications, Professional Audio Applications, consumer and industrial applications of Internet of Things (IoT) such as industry and building automation and monitoring, and in general solutions for local area deployments for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency (URLLC) and massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) as envisioned by ITU-R for IMT-2020.

–>ETSI supports this DECT RIT mainly because of its URLLC capabilities, according to an email received from ETSI.

DECT-2020 NR is claimed by its sponsor to be a technology foundation is targeted for local area wireless applications, which can be deployed anywhere by anyone at any time. The technology supports autonomous and automatic operation with minimal maintenance effort. Where applicable, interworking functions to wide area networks (WAN). e.g. PLMN, satellite, fibre, and internet protocols foster the vision of a network of networks. DECT-2020 NR can be used as foundation for: Very reliable Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Links provisioning (e.g. cable replacement solutions);  Local Area Wireless Access Networks following a star topology as in classical DECT deployment supporting URLLC use cases, and Self-Organizing Local Area Wireless Access Networks following a mesh network topology, which enables to support mMTC use cases.

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5D has approved the 3GPP and TSDSI RIT/SRIT submissions to be progressed to the next step at their recent e-Meeting which ended July 9, 2020.  From the July 13, 2020 DRAFT NEW REPORT ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME]:

1.] Summary of the evaluations received for the candidate RIT submission (Document IMT-2020/14) from 3GPP Proponent:

There were ten relevant evaluation reports received for the candidate 3GPP RIT submission. The relevant received evaluation reports confirmed that the candidate 3GPP RIT proposal in IMT-2020/14 fulfils the minimum requirements for the five test environments comprising the three usage scenarios.

2.] The evaluated candidate RIT proposal (Document IMT-2020/19(Rev.1)) from TSDSI is assessed by ITU-R as satisfactorily fulfilling the minimum requirements for the five test environments comprising the three usage scenarios. Thus, this TSDSI RIT proposal is ‘a qualifying RIT’ and therefore will go forward for further consideration in Step 7.

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IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT Submissions being progressed by 5D:

Each of the following IMT-2020 candidate technology submission proposals will be accepted for inclusion in the standardization phase described in Step 8.

IMT-2020/13 – Acknowledgement of candidate SRIT submission from 3GPP proponent under step 3 of the IMT-2020 process.

IMT-2020/14 – Acknowledgement of candidate RIT submission from 3GPP proponent under step 3 of the IMT-2020 process.

IMT-2020/15 – Acknowledgement of candidate RIT submission from China (People’s Republic of) under step 3 of the IMT-2020 process.

IMT-2020/16 – Acknowledgement of candidate RIT submission from Korea (Republic of) under Step 3 of the IMT-2020 process

IMT-2020/19(Rev.1) – Acknowledgement of candidate RIT submission from TSDSI under step 3 of the IMT-2020 process.

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However, there is still confusion (at least for this author) as to whether the China and Korea submissions (which were stated to be technically identical to 3GPP submissions) will ultimately be included in IMT-2020.SPECs as independent/separate text or merged with the 3GPP RIT/SRIT submissions.  That may be decided at the October or November 2020 5D meetings.

–>If they are all included as separate texts, it will pose a version change challenge with 3 technically identical sets of IMT 2020 RIT/SRITs with each proponent able to revise the spec at any time, independent of the others.

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Overview of IMT-2020.SPECS:

The radio interface specifications in IMT-2020.SPECS detail the feature and parameters of IMT-2020. This Recommendation indicates that IMT-2020 enables worldwide compatibility, international roaming, and access to the services under all three usage scenarios, including enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine type communications (mMTC) and ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC).

The capabilities of IMT-2020 include:
– very high peak data rate;
– very high and guaranteed user experienced data rate;
– quite low air interface latency;
– quite high mobility while providing satisfactory quality of service;
– enabling massive connection in very high density scenario;
– very high energy efficiency for network and device side;
– greatly enhanced spectral efficiency;
– significantly larger area traffic capacity;
– high spectrum and bandwidth flexibility;
– ultra high reliability and good resilience capability;
– enhanced security and privacy.

These features enable IMT-2020 to address evolving user and industry needs.  The capabilities of IMT-2020 systems are being continuously enhanced in line with user and industry trends, and consistent with technology developments.

IMT-2020 Frequencies and Arrangements:

It’s vitally important to recognize that the frequencies to be used by IMT-2020 RITs, including five sets of mmWave bands, will NOT be in IMT-2020.SPECS.  Instead, they will be included in a revision of ITU-R M.1036 Recommendation (see below).  At their July 2020 meeting, 5D could not reach consensus on the draft revision of M.1036, because the Russian Federation expressed concerns about the current version of the revision.  Hence, this work item was carried over to 5D’s October 2020 meeting.

The highly touted and ultra hyped mmWave frequency arrangements (five such frequency arrangements were recommended by WRC 19) have yet to be added to the M.1036 revision.  Frequency arrangements in the bands:  24.25-27.5 GHz, 37-43.5 GHz, 45.5-47 GHz, 47.2-48.2GHz, and 66-71 GHz will all use unpaired frequency arrangement with Time Division Duplexing (TDD) used to separate transmit and receive channels for full duplex communications.

Related ITU-R References:

– Recommendation ITU-R M.1036 Frequency arrangements for implementation of the terrestrial component of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) in the bands identified for IMT in the Radio Regulations

– Recommendation ITU-R M.2083 IMT vision -Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2020 and beyond

– Recommendation ITU-R M.1822 Framework for services supported by IMT

– Report ITU-R M.2320 Future technology trends of terrestrial IMT systems

– Report ITU-R M.2370 IMT traffic estimates for the years 2020-2030

– Report ITU-R M.2376 Technical feasibility of IMT in bands above 6 GHz

Report ITU-R M.2411 Requirements, evaluation criteria and submission templates for the development of IMT-2020

– Report ITU-R M.2410 Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-2020 radio interface(s)

– Report ITU-R M.2412 Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT-2020

– Resolution ITU-R 56 Naming for International Mobile Telecommunications

– Resolution ITU-R 65 Principles for the process of development of IMT for 2020 and beyond

– Document IMT-2020/1 IMT-2020 Background 2020

– Document IMT-2020/2(Rev.2) Submission and evaluation process and consensus building for IMT-2020

– Document IMT-2020/20 Process and the use of Global Core Specification (GCS), references, and related certifications in conjunction with Recommendation ITU‑R M.IMT-[2020.SPECS]

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IMT-2020 Independent Evaluation Groups:

Under Step 4 of IMT-2020 process, candidate RITs or SRITs were evaluated by Independent Evaluation Groups (IEG) that registered with the ITU-R in conformance with the process. In this step, the candidate RITs or SRITs were assessed based on Reports ITU-R M.2411 and ITU-R M.2412.

The IEGs utilized the defined ITU-R evaluation methodology and criteria established in the relevant ITU-R Reports covering IMT-2020. ITU-R concluded that the IEGs had fulfilled their role in the process and that the inclusion of views from organizations external to the ITU‑R.

Considering the requirements, evaluation criteria and submission templates for the development of IMT-2020 included in Report ITU-R M.2411, the minimum requirements related to technical performance for IMT‑2020 radio interface(s) in Report ITU-R M.2410, and the guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT‑2020 are included in Report ITU‑R M.2412, the conclusions have been reached for each of the IMT-2020 RIT/SRITs submitted by 3GPP, China, Korea, TSDSI (India), DECT/ETSI, and Nufront.  Those detailed conclusions are beyond the scope of this article.

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Overview of 3GPP’s radio interface technologies (E-UTRA/LTE and 5G NR):

The IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT specifications known as “5G” have been developed by 3GPP and consist of LTE and 5G NR Releases 15, 16, and beyond.

In 3GPP terminology, the term Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is also used to signify the LTE radio interface. 5G is a Set of Radio Interface Technologies (RITs) consisting of E-UTRA/LTE as one component RIT and (5G) NR as the other component RIT. Both components are designed for operation in IMT defined spectrum.

5G fulfills all technical performance requirements in all five selected IMT-2020 test environments : Indoor Hotspot – enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Dense Urban – eMBB, Rural – eMBB, Urban Macro – Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) and Urban Macro – massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC).

5G also fulfills the service and the spectrum requirements. Both component RITs, NR and E-UTRA/LTE, utilize the frequency bands below 6 GHz identified for International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT) in the ITU Radio Regulations. In addition, the NR component RIT can also utilize the frequency bands above 6 GHz, i.e., above 24.25 GHz, identified for IMT in the ITU Radio Regulations. The complete set of standards for the terrestrial radio interface of IMT-2020 identified as 5G includes not only the key characteristics of IMT-2020 but also the additional capabilities of 5G both of which are continuing to be enhanced.

ITU-R WP5D’s conclusion on 3GPP’s 5G SRIT and 5G RIT is shown in the table below:

Radio Interface Technologies:

NAME: (3GPP 5G:1 SRIT)

Proponents (submission in):

3GPP Proponent (IMT-2020/13)2

Determination whether the RIT or SRIT meets the requirements of Res. ITU‑R 65, resolves 6 e) and f), for the five test environments comprising the three usage scenarios

YES
(Requirements met for five test environments)

Inclusion in the standardization phase described in Step 8

YES

Radio Interface Technologies:

NAME: (3GPP 5G:3 RIT)

Proponents (submission in):

3GPP Proponent (IMT-2020/14)

China (People’s Republic of) (IMT-2020/15)

Korea (Republic of) (IMT-2020/16)

Determination whether the RIT or SRIT meets the requirements of Res. ITU‑R 65, resolves 6 e) and f), for the five test environments comprising the three usage scenarios

YES
(Requirements met for five test environments)

Inclusion in the standardization phase described in Step 8

YES

1 Developed by 3GPP as 5G, Release 15 and beyond (as indicated in Documents 5D/1215 and 5D/1216)

2 The NB-IoT part of IMT-2020/15 (China) candidate technology proposal is technically identical to the specifications for the NB-IoT part of IMT-2020/13 (3GPP SRIT).

3 Developed by 3GPP as 5G, Release 15 and beyond (as indicated in Documents 5D/1215 and 5D/1217)

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The 3GPP 5G System (5GS) also includes specifications for its non-radio aspects, such as the core network elements (the Enhanced Packet Core (EPC) Network and 5G Core (5GC) Network), security, codecs, network management, etc.

–>These non-radio specifications are not included in the so-called “Global Core Specifications (GCS)” of IMT-2020.

Support of Industry Verticals:

The E-UTRA/LTE and 5G NR component RITs from 3GPP support a diverse set of mobile broadband (eMBB) services and other so-called industry “verticals,” including URLLC, Industrial IoT, Automotive/V2X, Private Networks (NPN), and others. NR RIT supports in-band coexistence with NB-IoT and eMTC. For optimal support of specific verticals, the 5G NR RIT has been designed, or enhanced, with certain key features, or set of features.

A short summary of relevant NR RIT capabilities for a few industry verticals is provided below.

Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC) and Industrial IoT (IIoT): 

For support of Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications services, some of the main features supported by the 5G NR RIT are:
• Logical Channel Priority (LCP) restrictions
• Packet duplication with DC or CA
• New QCI table for block error rate 10*-5
• Physical layer short transmission time interval (TTI)

From 3GPP Rel-16 onwards, URLLC and Industrial IoT use cases are further facilitated by:
• NR PDCP duplication enhancements,
• Prioritization/multiplexing enhancements,
• NR Time Sensitive Communications (TSC) related enhancements,e.g. Ethernet header compression, and
• Precise time information delivery

Factory Automation and “Industry 4.0”:

5G URLLC in Release 16 (RAN and 5G core) was said to improve link reliability by as much as 99.9999%.  These types of applications are best served by a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) approach that leverages multiple transmission and reception (multi-TRP) architecture to provide redundant communication paths with some degree of spatial diversity.

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications:

From 3GPP Rel-16, NR RIT includes support of Vehicle-to-everything (V2X), mainly by means of NR sidelink communication over the PC5 interface, partly leveraging what was defined for E-UTRA V2X sidelink communication.

Sidelink transmission and reception over the PC5 interface are supported when the UE is inside NG-RAN coverage, irrespective of which RRC state the UE is in, and when the UE is outside NG-RAN coverage.

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IMT-2020 Consensus Building and Decision by 5D:

– IMT-2020/15 (China) candidate technology proposal is technically identical to the IMT‑2020/14 (3GPP RIT) candidate technology proposal and NB-IoT part of IMT‑2020/13 (3GPP SRIT) candidate technology proposal;

– IMT-2020/16 (Korea) candidate technology proposal is technically identical to the IMT‑2020/14 (3GPP RIT) candidate technology proposal;

Additionally, consensus building has been performed with the objective of achieving global harmonization and having the potential for wide industry support for the radio interfaces that are developed for IMT‑2020. (?????)

As a result of the consensus building in ITU-R among the seven technology proposals, the following groupings are agreed by ITU-R:

– The SRIT proposed in IMT-2020/13 including NB-IoT part to which China (People’s Republic of) (NB-IoT part of IMT-2020/15) is technically identical, is identified in ITU as “3GPP 5G SRIT”1, developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), for Step 7 and subsequent IMT-2020 development.

– The RITs proposed in IMT-2020/14, NR part of IMT-2020/15 and IMT-2020/16 are grouped into the technology identified in ITU as “3GPP 5G RIT”, developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), for Step 7 and subsequent IMT-2020 development.

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Future plans for the IMT process:

IMT is an on-going process of development and updates within ITU-R WP 5D.

In 2021, ITU-R will define the schedule for future general revisions of the Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS], to accommodate any future new, improved, or updated IMT-2020 candidate technology proposals beyond the first release, utilizing the same baseline IMT ‘revision and update process’ currently in place, as applied to IMT 2020.

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Future IEEE Techblog posts on 3GPP Rel 16 and IMT 2020.SPECS:

This author has been in dialog with 3GPP leaders via the 3GPP Marketing Communications Manager to accurately assess 3GPP Rel 16 completed work items related to 5G (both radio and non-radio aspects).

In particular, we are very much interested in the 3GPP Rel 16 URLLC specification, performance simulation(s), and performance testing (not yet started).  Only after independent performance testing will we know if the URLLC test implementation meets the required performance parameters specified by 3GPP and/or Minimum requirements related to technical performance for IMT-2020 radio interface(s) [ITU M.2410].

The IEEE Techblog Editorial Team is soliciting guest blog posts related to 3GPP Rel 16 and/or issues with IMT-2020.SPECS as well as other topics listed here.

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References:

5G Specifications (3GPP), 5G Radio Standard (IMT 2020) and Standard Essential Patents

3GPP Release 16 Update: 5G Phase 2 (including URLLC) to be completed in June 2020; Mission Critical apps extended

https://techblog.comsoc.org/?q=IMT%202020#gsc.tab=0&gsc.q=IMT%202020&gsc.page=1

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/submission-eval.aspx

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=9114983

https://www.3gpp.org/news-events/2129-sweet_rel_16

https://www.3gpp.org/news-events/2130-video_sa

New ITU-T SG13 Recommendations related to IMT 2020 and Quantum Key Distribution

by Leo Lehmann,  Chairman of ITU-T SG13 with background information and editing by Alan J Weissberger

Backgrounder:

ITU-T SG13 is the lead ITU-T study group on: future networks such as IMT-2020 networks (non-radio related parts), mobility
management, cloud computing, and trusted network infrastructure.  The work is assigned to questions of which the following are related to the non radio aspects of IMT 2020:

Q.6: Quality of service (QoS) aspects including IMT-2020 networks
Q.20: IMT-2020: Network requirements and functional architecture
Q.21: Network softwarization including softwaredefined networking, network slicing and orchestration
Q.22: Upcoming network technologies for IMT-2020 and future networks
Q.23: Fixed-mobile convergence including IMT-2020

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ITU-T SG13 Chairman’s Summary:

The recent (since October 2019) published IMT 2020 (non radio) related recommendations from ITU SG13 are the following:

  • Y.3154 (Y.NetSoft-SSMO) Resource pooling for scalable network slice service management and orchestration in the IMT-2020 network.  [see below this article for SG13 liaison to GSMA related to Network Slicing]
  • Y.3108 (Y.IMT2020-CEF) Capability exposure function in the IMT-2020 networks
  • Y.3132  (Y.FMC-MM) Mobility management for fixed mobile convergence in IMT-2020 networks
  • Y.3133 (Y.FMC-CE) Capability exposure enhancement for supporting FMC (Fixed Mobile Convergence) in IMT-2020 networks
  • Y.3173 (Y.ML-IMT2020 -Intelligence-level) Framework for evaluating intelligence level of future networks including IMT-2020
  • Y.3174  (Y.ML-IMT2020 -Data-Handling) Framework for data handling to enable machine learning in future networks including IMT-2020
  • Y.3175 (Y.qos-ml-arc) Functional architecture of machine learning based quality of service assurance for the IMT-2020 network
  • Y.3154 (Y.NetSoft-SSMO) Resource pooling for scalable network slice service management and orchestration in the IMT-2020 network

Not directly related to IMT 2020, but generally related to network orchestration and optimization is Y.3652 (Y.bDDN-req) “Requirements of big data driven networking” as an useful new document in the Y.365x series.

In addition, SG13 has published two new recommendations for networks to support quantum key distribution (QKD) [1] :

  • Y.3800 (Y.QKDN_FR) Overview on networks supporting quantum key distribution
  • Y.3801 (Y.QKDN_req) Functional requirements for quantum key distribution networks
  • Y.3800 describes the basic conceptual structures of QKD networks as the first of a series of emerging ITU standards on network and security aspects of quantum information technologies. SG13 standards for QKD networks – networks of QKD devices and an overlay network – will enable the integration of QKD technology into large-scale ICT networks.

Complementing these activities SG17 standards provide recommendations for the security of these QKD networks.

Note 1.    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology using quantum physics to secure the distribution of symmetric encryption keys which solves the problem of key distribution by allowing the exchange of a cryptographic key between two remote parties with information-theoretic security, guaranteed by the fundamental laws of physics. This key can then be used securely with conventional cryptographic algorithms.

The threats posed by quantum computing have a wide range of impacts since public key algorithms such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) are widely used in various security protocols and applications. How to design quantum-safe cryptography that can resist quantum computing attacks is a problem that must be considered for ICT systems to ensure security in the “quantum era”.

In general, there are three possible means to combat quantum computing attacks:

  1. Enhancement of current crypto system: Doubling the current key size can resist Grover’s algorithm which provides a quadratic speed-up for quantum search algorithms in comparison to search algorithms on classical computers. However, this is only suitable for symmetric key systems.

  2. Design of new public key system: Utilizing new mathematical problems which have not been cracked by current quantum algorithms, e.g., lattice-based and code-based cryptography algorithms, which are more often called post-quantum cryptography (PQC). However, even if those new mathematical problems might be proven as robust against known quantum algorithms, they will not be proven secure against quantum algorithms that might be created in the future.

  3. Use of QKD to replace public key based key exchange mechanism: The security of QKD is based on quantum physics principles, which can effectively avoid the threats caused by the increase of computational power or algorithmic “backdoors” faced by traditional public key algorithms. QKD is already proven as robust against quantum algorithms that might be created in the future.

According to Wikipedia, Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute a key, not to transmit any message data. This key can then be used with any chosen encryption algorithm to encrypt (and decrypt) a message, which can then be transmitted over a standard communication channel. The algorithm most commonly associated with QKD is the one-time pad, as it is provably secure when used with a secret, random key. In real-world situations, it is often also used with encryption using symmetric key algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm.

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Liaison Q & A between GSMA and ITU-T SG13 on Network Slicing – Important output liaison from March 2020 SG13 meeting:

Question #1: Network slicing is one of the main features of 5G networks and has been defined by 3GPP. GSMA NEST (NEtwork Slice Type) would like to understand how ServiceProfile from 3GPP TS 28.530 fits into IMT-2020 network slice configuration?

Question #3: What is the relationship between ITU-T NST (Network Slice Template) and GSMA GST (Generic network Slice Template) and 3GPP ServiceProfile?

Answer: ITU-T Q21/13 has recognized the necessity of translation processes from GSMA GST into 3GPP ServiceProfile. Q21/13 is studying the processes with the analysis of IMT-2020 use-cases, and trying to define useful parameters and information for the processes without overlap between SDOs.

Separately Network Slicing will be further defined in 3GPP Release 16.

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About Leo Lehmann:  

Since April 2015, Le​o Lehmann, PhD has been the elected Chairman of ITU-T Study Group 13 (Future networks including cloud computing, mobile and next-generation networks). Prior to his election, Leo was the ITU-T SG13 vice-chairman and working party co-chairman since October 2008.

Leo works full time at OFCOM -Switzerland, taking care of the regulation of mobile and fixed/mobile converged networks.  Prior to joining OFCOM (Switzerland’s regulator) in 2002, Leo held senior management positions in network engineering, system design and services at major telecommunications players on both the vendor and operator side of business.

From 2012 until 2014, Leo also was Vice-chairman of the ITU-T Focus Group on Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery (FG DR& NRR). Afore he was the Rapporteur on “multimedia service mobility management” in the ITU-T Study Group 16 (Multimedia Services) for many years.

An internationally recognized expert, Leo has worked in telecommunications for 24 years and has experience in private industry as well as the public sector.

As a designated expert on Next Generation Networks and Future Networks including 5G and Multimedia, he has contributed papers and talks at many conferences and workshops.  Dr Lehmann is one of the winners of the best paper award of the ITU-T Kaleidoscope event 2011 “The fully networked human? − Innovations for future networks and services.”

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References:

https://techblog.comsoc.org/2019/03/12/itu-t-sg13-non-radio-hot-topics-and-recommendations-related-to-imt-2020-5g/

https://techblog.comsoc.org/2018/05/18/ieee-comsoc-papers-on-network-slicing-and-5g/

https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Regional-Presence/Europe/Documents/Events/2018/5G%20Greece/Session%203%205G%20standards%20ITU%20and%20Italy.pdf

https://www.itu.int/md/T17-SG13-190628-TD-WP1-0384  (Network Slicing Requirements-ITU TIES users only)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_key_distribution

https://www.bakom.admin.ch/bakom/en/homepage.html

ITU-R WP5D Feb 2020 Meeting Report Excerpts: Technology Aspects WG (IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT)

by Hu Wang, Chair, ITU-R WP 5D Working Group Technology Aspects (edited for clarity by Alan J Weissberger)

NOTE that all documents referenced in this meeting report are ONLY available to those that have an ITU TIES account.

Introduction and Overview:

The WP 5D Technology Aspects WG met two times during the 34th meeting of ITU-R Working Party (WP) 5D in Geneva, Switzerland.  The meeting concluded on February 26, 2020.

Main activities of Technology Aspects WG during this meeting were to:

  1. review evaluation reports of Independent Evaluation Groups for the candidate technologies; complete evaluation report summaries (IMT-2020/ZZZ) and complete the Step 4 of the Evaluation Process;

  2. continue working on a new Report ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME];

  3. continue working on a new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS];

  4. continue working on the revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1457-14 (LTE);

  5. continue working on synchronization of multiple IMT TDD networks;

  6. start the work on two new subjects [IMT TERRESTRIAL BROADBAND REMOTE COVERAGE] and [IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS].

During this meeting, WG Technology Aspects established five Sub-Working Groups (SWGs):

– SWG Coordination (Chair: Mr. Yoshio HONDA),

– SWG Evaluation (Acting Chair: Mr. Yoshio HONDA),

– SWG IMT Specifications (Chair: Mr. Yoshinori ISHIKAWA),

– SWG Out of band emissions (Chair: Mr. Uwe LÖWENSTEIN),

– SWG Radio Aspects (Chair: Mr. Marc GRANT)

Image result for image of IMT 2020

Evaluation of IMT-2020 candidate technology submissions:

This 34th WP 5D meeting is a milestone of the IMT-2020 submission and evaluation process: Step 4 – Evaluation of candidate RITs or SRITs by independent evaluation groups.

Twelve Independent Evaluation Groups (IEGs) submitted to this meeting twenty-seven evaluation reports of all the candidate technology submissions. The meeting reviewed these evaluation reports, with participations of the IEGs, the proponents of candidate technology submissions and other participants. The Step 4 was completed with all the evaluation reports recorded.

Evaluation report summaries are captured in the respective documents (5D/TEMP/112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125 and 126). The meeting also developed an overall summary – Summary of Step 4 of the IMT-2020 Process for Evaluation of IMT-2020 Candidate Technology Submissions (5D/TEMP/124), which also captures different views raised during the discussion at the meeting.

An addendum to the Circular Letter 5/LCCE/59 was developed to convey the completion of Step 4.

The meeting also made progress on the work of Document M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME]. It was agreed to upgrade the working document to a preliminary draft new Report (5D/TEMP/111).

IMT-2020.SPECS

The work of M.[IMT‑2020.SPECS] continued at this meeting based on received contributions. The working document and the work plan were revised accordingly (5D/TEMP/41 and 40).

A draft liaison statement to potential GCS Proponents to request the inputs to 35th meeting was developed. It was noted that confirmation of the potential GCS Proponents can only be done after WP 5D takes a decision for Steps 6 & 7 on IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT at its 35th meeting.

Work items in SWG Radio Aspects

The meeting made progress on the work of Synchronization of multiple IMT-2020 TDD networks and the working document was updated (5D/TEMP/93).

A new working document is created to study terrestrial IMT for remote sparsely populated areas providing high data rate coverage – M.[IMT TERRESTRIAL BROADBAND REMOTE COVERAGE] (5D/TEMP/101).

The meeting also agreed to start work on future technology trends, and a work plan was developed (5D/TEMP/96).

Objective for the 35th WP 5D meeting:

The key objectives of WG Technology Aspects for the 35th WP 5D meeting are as follows:

i) complete the work of Step 6 and Step 7 of the IMT-2020 submission and evaluation process; finalize the document M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME];

ii) continue work on M.[IMT‑2020.SPECS];

iii) finalize the revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1457-14;

iv) continue work on synchronization of multiple IMT-2020 TDD networks;

v) continue work on M.[IMT TERRESTRIAL BROADBAND REMOTE COVERAGE] and M.[IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS].

ITU-R WP 5D Dec 2019 meeting #33: activity related to IMT 2020 RIT/SRIT

by ITU-R WP 5D Chair persons with Editor’s Note (and copy edits) by Alan J Weissberger, IEEE Techblog Content Manager

Main activities of WP5D WG Technology Aspects during meeting #33 (Dec 10-13 in Geneva) were:

i) Review additional materials provided by the candidate IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT proponents ETSI (TC DECT) and DECT Forum, Nufront and TSDSI, per the agreed way forward at the 32nd meeting of WP 5D regarding their respective submissions;

ii) Review of external activities in Independent Evaluation Groups (for candidate IMT 2020 RIT/SRITs) through interim evaluation reports;

iii) Continue work on revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1457-14 (specification of terrestrial radio interfaces for IMT-2000)

iv) Start working on Report ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME].

v) Start working on Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS].

During this meeting, WG Technology Aspects established three Sub-Working Groups (SWG):

–                 SWG Coordination (Chair: Mr. Yoshio HONDA)

–                 SWG Evaluation (Co-Chair: Ms. Ying PENG)

–                 SWG IMT Specifications (Chair: Mr. Yoshinori ISHIKAWA)

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Review of updated materials of IMT-2020 submissions:

As per the agreed way forward at the 32nd WP 5D meeting regarding candidate IMT-2020 RIT/SRIT submissions of ETSI (TC DECT) and DECT Forum, Nufront and TSDSI, the respective proponents provided updated materials of their submissions on September 10th of 2019.

After review of these updated materials of submissions under the IMT-2020 Process Step 3 – Submission / reception of the RIT and SRIT proposals and acknowledgement of receipt, the meeting determined that the submissions of ETSI (TC DECT) and DECT Forum, Nufront and TSDSI are “complete” per Section 5 of Report ITU-R M.2411 (Requirements, evaluation criteria and submission templates for the development of IMT-2020).

Editor’s Note:  Also see ITU-R Report M.2412: Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT-2020.

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During the course of this review, documents for observations on the submissions were updated.

Review of interim evaluation reports:

A workshop on IMT-2020 terrestrial radio interfaces evaluation was conducted at beginning of this WP 5D meeting (Dec 10-11, 2019), where the registered independent evaluation groups presented their activities and findings. In addition, some independent evaluation groups also submitted interim evaluation reports. The meeting reviewed these contributions and recorded them.

Report ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME]:

The meeting created the draft detailed workplan and draft working document towards a prelimininary draft new Report ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME] which will collect outcomes from Step 4 to 7 in IMT-2020 development process. Those two documents were carried forward to the next meeting for further work.

Detailed schedule for development of IMT-2020.SPECS:

Detailed workplan for development of draft new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] and its working document were developed in the meeting.  A related liaison statement to the external organizations was also developed.

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Editor’s Note: 

IMHO, the IMT 2020.SPECS schedule is NOT realistic, mainly because there isn’t enough time for 5D WG Technology Aspects to evaluate 3GPPs expected Release 16 submission at their June 2020 meeting.  Note that China, Korea and India (TSDSI) have all based their IMT 2020 RIT submissions on 3GPP Release 15 “5G NR” data plane which must be enhanced in IMT 2020.SPECs to meet the ultra high reliability/ultra high latency performance requirements for both the data and control planes.

There are only two more WP 5D meetings in 2020 (see last section below) after the June 2020 5D meeting, yet a complete IMT 2020.SPECs must be submitted by Nov 23, 2020 to ITU-R SG 5 (5D’s parent) for approval.  If not, IMT 2020 will become IMT 2021 (or later if companion IMT 2020 recommendations have not been approved).  What good is it to have a 5G data plane without ultra low latency/ultra high reliability and a 4G (EPC) packet core?  With no 5G network management or 5G security specified (presumably by ITU-T)?

Specifically, what if the 5G Mobile Packet Core (3GPP 5GC), enhanced 5G control plane/signaling, 5G network management, 5G security, etc (all in 3GPP Release 16) are not completed in time to be considered by ITU-R or ITU-T in 2020?

Another danger is IMT 2020.SPECS revision control with multiple RIT submissions dependent on 3GPP 5G NR.  What if some proponents stick with Release 15 NR while others adopt Release 16 NR in July 2020?  And how can all the different proponent IMT 2020 RITs be harmonized to ensure interoperability and roaming?

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Objective for the 34th WP 5D meeting – Feb 2020 in Geneva:

The key objectives of WG Technology Aspects for the 34th WP 5D meeting are as follows:

i) Review of external activities and evaluation reports of Independent Evaluation Groups.

ii) Complete evaluation reports summary (IMT-2020/ZZZ).

iii)    Continue working on a new Report ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME].

iv) Continue the work on “Over-the-air (OTA) TRP field measurements for IMT radio equipment utilizing AAS” based on the requested response from 3GPP and expected input from other organisations and administrations.

v) Continue working on revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1457-14.

vi) Continue working on new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020. SPECS]

Submitted by Ying Peng, Chair, SWG Evaluation

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M.[IMT-2020.SPECS]:

Under agenda item 4 (PDN Rec. ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS]), the meeting received two input contributions from Korea, Japan and China.

Both contributions proposed the detailed work plan for developing the new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] and the working document towards a preliminary draft new Recommendation.

The meeting reviewed those proposals and discussed the work plan and contents for the working document and agreed the detailed work plan and the working document towards a PDNR (preliminary draft new report).

Detailed workplan and working document towards PDNR M. [IMT‑2020.OUTCOME]

The meeting created the draft detailed work plan and draft working document towards PDNR M.[IMT-2020.OUTCOME] based on the carried forward document and input contributions to this meeting. Two TEMP Documents were created accordingly and will be carried forward to the next meeting.

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Meeting #33 also created a liaison statement to relevant External Organizations (RIT/SRIT Proponents, potential GCS Proponent(s) of IMT-2020) to request the inputs to 34th and 35th meetings in accordance with Doc. IMT-2020/21. WG-IMT Specification seeks approval of this liaison in WG Technology Aspects Plenary and WP 5D Plenary.

Submitted by Yoshinori ISHIKAWA, Chairman, SWG IMT Specifications

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RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS]:

Detailed specifications of the terrestrial radio interfaces of International
Mobile Telecommunications-2020 (IMT-2020)

Scope:

This Recommendation identifies the terrestrial radio interface technologies of International Mobile Telecommunications-2020 (IMT-2020) and provides the detailed radio interface specifications.

Korea, Japan:

[These radio interface specifications detail the features and parameters of IMT-2020, which enable worldwide compatibility, international roaming, access to the services under the usage scenarios including enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine type communications (mMTC) and ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC).]

China:

[These radio interface specifications detail the features and parameters of IMT-2020. This Recommendation includes the capability to ensure worldwi.de compatibility, international roaming, access to enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine type communications (mMTC) and ultra reliability and low latency communications (URLLC).]

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For more details on skeleton IMT 2020.SPECs and related work plan, please see:

China ITU-R WP5D submission: work plan and working document for IMT-2020.SPECS

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Because of their ultra critical importance we repeat the objectives of the last three WP 5D meetings in 2020:

Meeting No. 35 (Jun. 2020, [China])

1   Receive and review information, including the texts for its RIT/SRIT overview sections, List of Global Core Specifications and Certification B by GCS Proponents[1].

2   Reach its conclusion on the acceptability of the proposed materials for inclusion in the working document towards PDN Rec. ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS].

3   Finalizes the working document including specific technologies (not necessarily including the detailed transposition references) and provisionally agree for promoting the document to preliminary draft new Recommendation.

4   Provide and send liaison of the provisionally agreed preliminary draft new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] to the relevant GCS Proponents and Transposing Organizations for their use in developing their inputs of the detailed references.

Meeting No. 36 (Oct. 2020, [India])

1   Update PDNR if there are modifications proposed by GCS Proponent.

2   Perform a quality and completion check of the provisionally agreed final draft new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] without the hyperlinks.

3   Have follow-up communications initiated with GCS Proponents and/or Transposing Organizations, if necessary.

Meeting No. 36bis (Nov. 2020, Geneva)

1   Receive Transposition references and Certification C from each Transposing Organization.

2   Perform the final quality and completeness check (with detailed transposition references) of the preliminary draft new Recommendation and promotes it to draft new Recommendation.

3   —>Send the draft new Recommendation ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.SPECS] to Study Group 5 for consideration (at their Nov 23-24, 2020 meeting).

[1]   If the GCS Proponentrnal (potential GCS Proponent) decides to use DIS style, it doesn’t need to submit List of Global Core Specifications but needs to submit full materials for describing its RIT/SRIT in the Recommendation and Form B.

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