Comcast’s DOCSIS 4.0 Deployment: Multi-Gig Symmetrical Speeds to be offered across the U.S.

Next week, Comcast will begin to deploy DOCSIS 4.0 technology (described below) which can deliver multi-gigabit symmetrical speeds to customers over the connections that already exist in tens of millions of homes in Comcast markets across the country.  Xfinity customers in Colorado Springs will be able to sign up online for the new DOCSIS 4.0-powered Internet plans next week.

As a part of the launch, Comcast will introduce a new portfolio of symmetrical products for residential customers. Comcast will begin rolling out DOCSIS 4.0 to select neighborhoods in Colorado Springs, CO, and will launch new markets throughout the country over the next few years. Select areas of Atlanta, GA and Philadelphia, PA are expected to begin rolling out before the end of this year.

“The ubiquity of our network, which is already accessible to tens of millions of homes, provides us with an incredible opportunity to bring multi-gigabit upload and download speeds to communities across the country with the scale and efficiency that no other provider can replicate,” said Dave Watson, President & CEO, Comcast Cable. “Our connectivity experience, powered by the Xfinity 10G Network, will allow us to deliver speeds up to 10 Gbps over our traditional network to virtually all our customers, plus even better reliability, lower latency, and the best in-home WiFi coverage.”

“We’re entering the next phase of this industry leadership with DOCSIS 4.0 technology to introduce X-Class Internet products that will revolutionize the way our customers get online today and many years into the future,” Watson added.

Symmetrical 10 Gbps service based on fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) technology is already available in all of Comcast’s markets, and as part of its continued network evolution and the introduction of DOCSIS 4.0, multi-gig symmetrical speeds are rolling out.

New and existing residential customers connected via DOCSIS 4.0 will have access to Comcast’s newly introduced next-generation X-Class Internet portfolio. X-Class speed tiers include X-300 Mbps, X-500 Mbps, X-1 Gbps and X-2 Gbps upload and download speeds and low lag for the ultimate live sports streaming experience on Peacock, smooth connections on work calls, and ultra-responsive gaming.

“The enhancements that we have been making to our network over the past few years have been foundational to creating an award-winning network architecture that is fully virtualized and capable of delivering these exciting capabilities to our customers, said Elad Nafshi, Chief Network Officer, Comcast Cable.  “This is an awesome achievement and I’m incredibly proud of the team of brilliant technologists here at Comcast who have worked relentlessly to make DOCSIS 4.0 a reality ahead of schedule,” Elad added.
Comcast’s path to DOCSIS 4.0 leverages breakthrough network technology known as “Full Duplex” that utilizes the same network spectrum to dramatically increase upstream speeds without sacrificing downstream speeds.

The DOCSIS 4.0 launch is the latest in a long line of world firsts that Comcast has spearheaded in the effort to implement DOCSIS 4.0. In April 2021, Comcast conducted the first-ever live test of full duplex DOCSIS and later that year tested the world’s first 10G connection all the way from the network to a modem. In 2022, Comcast conducted a world-first live trial and connected a business location in the Philadelphia region to its live network including a DOCSIS 4.0-enabled 10G node and multiple cable modems. In February 2023, the company marked another major milestone in the nation’s largest and fastest multi-gig deployment by announcing its latest Xfinity 10G Network upgrade launched to 10 million homes and businesses.

In addition to Comcast’s efforts to deploy DOCSIS 4.0 and other 10G upgrades across its footprint, the company continually invests in delivering a superior connectivity experience that is not only fast but is also reliable with less lag.

  • Award Winning Tech – Comcast has lead the industry in deploying technologies within its network to enhance speed, reliability and latency like distributed access architecture (DAA) and a vCMTS, which earned an Emmy® Award for Technology and Engineering.
  • Smart Network – Comcast-developed technology like Comcast Octave and Xfinity Fiber Meter (XMF), enables optimized network performance by proactively identifying and even repairing network impairments that impact customers’ services.
  • Storm-Ready WiFi – In August 2023, Comcast introduced Storm-Ready WiFi, the first product of its kind offered by an Internet provider designed to maintain a connection during a power or local outage.
  • Low Latency – Deployed Active Queue Management (AQM) system nationally and currently trialing the latest CableLabs low latency DOCSIS (LLD) specification.

DOCSIS Technology

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) was first introduced in 1997 as a solution for high-speed data to be transmitted over existing cable wires, replacing dial-up phone lines for an Internet connection. Comcast has been a leader in deploying DOCSIS updates to deliver faster speeds to all the homes and businesses in its service areas. In early 2016, Comcast was the first to introduce DOCSIS 3.1-powered Gigabit Internet service and rapidly expanded Gigabit speeds across the country to more locations than any other provider.


Fiber Connect 2023: Telcos vs Cablecos; fiber symmetric speeds vs. DOCSIS 4.0?

Comcast launches symmetrical 10-Gigabit speeds over Ethernet FTTP

Comcast demos 10Gb/sec full duplex with DOCSIS 4.0; TDS deploys symmetrical 8Gb/sec service

Comcast to roll out DOCSIS 4.0 and Multi-Gig speeds in 2023; Fiber (not FWA) is the real competitor

AT&T, Verizon and Comcast all lost fixed broadband subscribers in 2Q-2023

The three most dominant broadband wireline ISPs in the U.S. all lost wireline subscribers in Q2-2023.

1.   AT&T’s net total broadband access showed a loss of 35,000 subscribers in Q2-2023, which widened from a loss of -25,000 in the year-ago quarter. AT&T ended Q2 with 15.3 million broadband connections (including DSL), down 1.3% from 15.5 million a year earlier.

AT&T continued to add new fiber subscribers, but the pace of that growth slowed.  AT&T added 251,000 fiber subs in Q2, down from +316,000 in the year-ago quarter and down from +272,000 in the prior quarter.

AT&T ended the period with 7.73 million fiber subs. Fiber average revenue per user (ARPU) was $62.26, up from $57.64 in the year-ago period.

Click here for a larger version of this image. (Source: AT&T Q2 2023 earnings presentation)

Click here for a larger version of this image.
(Source: AT&T Q2 2023 earnings presentation)

AT&T added about 500,000 fiber locations during the quarter, ending Q2 with 20.2 million. CEO Stankey said AT&T remains on track to build fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) tech to 30 million locations by 2025.

AT&T’s average fiber penetration rate is hovering at 38%. “Everywhere we put fiber in the ground, we feel good about our ability to win with consumers,” Stankey said.

AT&T shed 286,000 non-fiber subscribers in the quarter, lowering that total to 5.95 million. AT&T also lost another 25,000 DSL subs in the quarter, ending the period with just 259,000.

Source: AT&T


2.  While Verizon added 54K FiOS internet subscribers in 2Q-2023 (51K FiOS net adds from Consumer, 3K from Business customers), it had a net loss of 304K wireline broadband subs when the loss of DSL subscribers was factored in.

From Verizon’s 2Q-2023 earnings call presentation:

Source: Verizon

Remarkably, Verizon added a net 384K fixed wireless subscribers, an increase from 256,000 fixed wireless net additions in second-quarter 2022. Verizon now has nearly 2.3 million subscribers on its fixed wireless service.

Due to FWA growth, Verizon reported total broadband net additions of 418,000 in 2Q-2023.


Comcast, the largest U.S. ISP, lost 20,000 residential broadband subscribers, lowering its total to 29.79 million. Comcast’s total broadband subscriber loss of 19,000 (including a gain of 1,000 business broadband customers), was better than the -74,000 expected by Wall Street analysts.

Comcast, which lost 10,000 residential broadband subs in the year-ago quarter, warned in April that it doesn’t expect to see much in the way of broadband subscriber growth gains in the near-term. The company also noted that it expected those numbers to be even lower in Q2 due to a slow housing move market paired with traditional “seasonality” driven by students and retirees returning for the summer.

Dave Watson, president and CEO of Comcast Cable, said on today’s earnings call that he expects Comcast to return to broadband subscriber growth “over time.” One way Comcast is pursuing subscriber growth is through network expansion and edge-outs that will total about 1 million locations in 2023. Comcast, which operates in 39 US states, also intends to participate in the Broadband Equity Access and Deployment (BEAD) program, which recently announced state-by-state funding allocations.

Comcast has cited average revenue per user (ARPU) growth as the key metric of its broadband business.  And Comcast’s broadband ARPU grew 4.5% in the quarter, matching the ARPU growth rate it posted in the prior quarter.


Here are the top 20 broadband wireline ISPs in the U.S.:

# Internet Service Provider Type States
1 Comcast Cable National
2 Charter Communications Cable National
3 AT&T Fiber National
4 Verizon Fiber Mid-Atlantic, Northeast
5 Cox Communications Cable National
6 Altice USA Cable/Fiber National
7 Lumen Technologies Fiber West, Florida
8 Frontier Communications Fiber National
9 Mediacom Communications Cable Midwest, Southeast
10 Astound Broadband Cable/Fiber National
11 Windstream Holdings Fiber South, Midwest, Northeast
12 Brightspeed Fiber Midwest, Southeast
13 Cable One Cable West, Midwest, South
14 Breezeline Cable/Fiber East Coast
15 WideOpenWest (WOW!) Cable/Fiber AL, FL, GA, MI, SC, TN
16 TDS Telecom Cable/Fiber National
17 Midco (Midcontinent Communications) Cable MN, ND, SD, WI, KS
18 Consolidated Communications Fiber National (22 states)
19 Google Fiber Fiber National (16 states)
20 Ziply Fiber Fiber WA, OR, ID, MT





Comcast launches symmetrical 10-Gigabit speeds over Ethernet FTTP

Comcast has announced a new symmetrical 10-Gigabit service tier for its Gigabit Pro fiber customers and reiterated a plan to bring multi-gigabit options to millions of cable internet customers. The move comes as Comcast prepares to launch DOCSIS 4.0 capabilities for cable customers by the end of the year.

Launched as a 2-Gig residential broadband service back in 2015, Gigabit Pro has been upgraded in recent years. Before heading to 10-Gig, the service delivered symmetrical speeds of 6 Gbit/s. Billed as a premium offering, Gigabit Pro runs $299 per month, plus installation costs.  Comcast has not announced how many of its 32.32 million broadband subscribers have opted for Gigabit Pro.

Comcast began field testing 10-Gig capabilities for customers shortly thereafter, with some users stating on Reddit in October 2022 that they were starting to see these speeds.

According to the latest data from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Comcast today primarily offers fiber to the premises in the areas around Chicago, Detroit, Indianapolis, Nashville, Knoxville, Atlanta, Jacksonville, Miami and West Palm Beach.

Comcast Cable EVP and Chief Network Officer Elad Nafshi told Fierce that the product is technically available nationwide, not just in areas where it has fiber. If a cable customer decides they want 10G, Comcast will come in and upgrade their drop from coaxial cable to fiber, he said.  The “highly-targeted” Gigabit Pro service continues to be delivered on an Ethernet-based FTTP platform.

In order to fully take advantage of the speeds now available on the fiber network, Comcast said users will need a 10G router or firewall, a desktop computer with a PCIe expansion slot, a 10G 850 nm multimode fiber (MMF), small form-factor pluggable (SFP) transceiver, a 10G PCIe network interface controller (NIC) adapter with small form-factor pluggable (SFP) cage and a multimode fiber LC cable patch.  Here are all the requirements for 10 Gig service:

For maximum speeds of 10 Gbps on a single computer, you’ll need the following:

  • A desktop computer with available PCIe expansion slot.
  • A 10G PCIe network interface controller (NIC) adapter with small form-factor pluggable (SFP) cage.
  • A 10G enhanced, 850 nm multimode fiber (MMF), small form-factor pluggable (SFP) transceiver.
  • A multimode fiber (MMF) LC patch cable.

To achieve maximum speeds of 10 Gbps on more than one of your devices connected to the fiber handoff, you will need a compatible router or firewall with throughput of 10 Gbps (or greater) along with the following:

  • A 10G WiFi router or firewall.
  • A 10G 850 nm multimode fiber (MMF), small form-factor pluggable (SFP) transceiver.
  • All additional equipment from the single computer requirements for each connected computer to reach 10 Gbps from the router or firewall. The actual number of devices and configurations supported varies by the brand and model of the router or firewall.

Nafshi told Fierce in February that the operator isn’t planning to overlay its cable network with fiber anytime soon. However, he noted the distributed access architecture it is adopting ahead of its DOCSIS 4.0 rollout is opening the door for more fiber deployments.

Though fiber advances may be moving faster, Comcast is also investing in upgrades to its cable system. It launched a new cable broadband tier offering 2 Gbps downstream and 200 Mbps upstream in September 2022. In October, it made a 2 Gbps/100 Mbps tier available to cable customers across 14 states in the Northeastern U.S.

Comcast said it is still planning to make multi-gig speeds available to more than 50 million locations by the end of 2025 and expects to begin rolling out DOCSIS 4.0 before the end of this year.

Nafshi told Fierce it is “heads down hardening and operationalizing products to meet the target deadline” for DOCSIS 4.0 and said the launch will by its nature include the introduction of a new speed tier.

“DOCSIS 4.0 will enable us to launch greater speeds and more speed symmetry when we launch, which by definition means it’s going to be a new tier service because we don’t currently offer those symmetrical tiers,” he concluded. “A lot more to come.”


Comcast demos 10Gb/sec full duplex with DOCSIS 4.0; TDS deploys symmetrical 8Gb/sec service

Ethernet Alliance multi-vendor interoperability demo (10GbE to 800GbE) at OFC 2023

Comcast Business expands SD-WAN portfolio for SMBs and single location customers

Comcast Business is expanding its SD-WAN portfolio to give more options to SMB customers. The MSO/ cableco on Friday announced two new solutions geared toward standalone business locations.  Comcast says the new solutions cater to partners who need to connect to cloud and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications.

The SD-WAN solutions enable small and medium businesses, with either a single location or multiple standalone locations, to help securely connect and manage their network, applications, and users. These businesses rely on SaaS applications and cloud services to operate, making secure networking a critical requirement. Comcast Business’ full range of global secure networking solutions provide connectivity, security, application optimization and control, as well as threat monitoring and response for single and multi-site customers.

In today’s digital economy, companies of all sizes need to provide their users fast, reliable, and secure connectivity to applications everywhere. This includes delivering high-quality, consistent, and predictable quality of experience for critical applications residing in the Cloud or SaaS and accessed via the public Internet. With the addition of these tailored SD-WAN solutions, Comcast Business can bring the benefits of secure networking to standalone and multi-site businesses around the world.

“Comcast Business’ global SD-WAN solutions are a central component of our secure network solutions strategy,” said Shena Seneca Tharnish, Vice President, Cybersecurity Products, Comcast Business. “With the addition of capabilities that support standalone sites, we are more prepared than ever to partner with businesses of all sizes to tailor solutions that meet their unique needs. At Comcast Business, we’re committed to preparing every business for what’s next.”

The enhancements to Comcast Business’ SD-WAN solutions enable secure networking and application optimization for single or multi-site businesses who need to connect to the Cloud or SaaS applications but may not require site-to-site networking. These solutions provide businesses with resiliency and visibility, as well as intelligent application prioritization and traffic steering, with advanced managed service. Key features include:

  • Diverse connectivity, intelligent traffic steering, and direct connections to Cloud services enhance application performance and resiliency
  • Advanced security capabilities to help protect against cyberthreats
  • 24×7 Security Operations Center (SOC)
  • Low-touch deployment capabilities provide easy installation
  • Highly competitive pricing

These solutions are ideal for companies that lack IT budgets or a corporate network but need to support single locations with cloud connectivity using public Internet services.

Comcast Business was recognized as a leader by market research firm Frost & Sullivan in its 2022 Managed SD-WAN Services in North America report [1.]. At the time, Comcast was touted as the second-largest provider of SD-WAN connections in North America. Frost & Sullivan noted that the provider is “especially successful among enterprise customers with 250 or more sites.”  The market research firm also gave a nod to Comcast’s strategic acquisition of SD-WAN leader Masergy and “the resultant portfolio enhancements and expanded partner ecosystem for SD-WAN and cloud solutions it has enabled.”

Note 1. Frost & Sullivan assessed 12 leading network and managed service providers in the North American market, analyzing their SD-WAN portfolios based on factors including partnerships with SD-WAN equipment vendors, breadth of underlay network technologies, self-service customer portals, and ability to offer value-added virtualized network functions (e.g., firewalls and routers) and other security solutions such as SASE.


Previously, Aryaka announced enhanced SD-WAN and SASE products specifically designed to meet the needs of SMEs with a new entry pricing of under $150 per site.  Aryaka Chief Product Officer Renuka Nadkarni told SDxCentral that ease of management is another key concern for many small businesses, which is why so many prefer managed services. Dell’Oro Group predicted the untapped networking and security SMB market will grow significantly this year on the backs of providers who can offer managed services.


About Comcast Business:

Comcast Business offers a suite of Connectivity, Communications, Networking, Cybersecurity, Wireless, and Managed Solutions to help organizations of different sizes prepare for what’s next. Powered by the nation’s largest Gig-speed broadband network, and backed by 24/7 customer support, Comcast Business is the nation’s largest cable provider to small and mid-size businesses and one of the leading service providers to the Enterprise market. Comcast Business has been consistently recognized by industry analysts and associations as a leader and innovator, and one of the fastest growing providers of Ethernet services.


To learn more about Comcast Business SD-WAN solutions:

Aryaka’s Expanded SD-WAN and SASE Offerings Bring Simplicity and Affordability to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Gartner: changes in WAN requirements, SD-WAN/SASE assumptions and magic quadrant for network services

Arista’s WAN Routing System targets routing use cases such as SD-WANs

Have we come full circle – from SD-WAN to SASE to SSE? MEF’s SD-WAN and SASE standards

Enterprises Deploy SD-WAN but Integrated Security (SASE) Needed

Comcast selects Nokia’s 5G SA Core software to support its mobile connectivity efforts

Today, Comcast announced it will roll out Nokia’s 5G Stand Alone Core networking software to support its deployment of CBRS and 600MHz spectrum to Xfinity Mobile and Comcast Business Mobile customers in its service areas across the United States.

Comcast will deploy that spectrum in select, high-traffic areas in support of both residential and business customers that take mobile services from the operator. Deploying fresh spectrum in those areas will give Comcast a greater degree of ownership economics with wireless and help to offset a portion of the MVNO costs associated with its pact with Verizon. Those deployments will also build on Comcast’s current Wi-Fi offload strategy that involves millions of access points deployed in customer homes and in certain metro areas.

Nokia will supply Comcast with its 5G Stand Alone Core networking software, including Packet Core, delivering near zero touch automation and ultra low latency capabilities, as well as operations software and consulting services. These offerings will support Comcast’s efforts to deliver enhanced 5G access to consumer and business customers in the U.S. using Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) and 600 MHz spectrum.

By combining Nokia’s software with Comcast’s targeted, capital-light network design, Comcast can cost-effectively deliver enhanced 5G and WiFi mobile connectivity to its more than five million Xfinity Mobile and Comcast Business Mobile customers. Comcast and Nokia are currently conducting field trials, which includes Comcast employee testing.

As the demand for reliable Internet access inside and outside of the home and office rapidly increases, Comcast’s mid-band (CBRS) and low-band (600MHz) spectrum enable the company to supplement its existing Xfinity WiFi network and cellular network partnership with additional targeted 5G coverage in certain high-traffic areas within its service territory.

Xfinity Mobile and Comcast Business Mobile services are built for the way people use mobile today, with the Internet at the core of the experience. Calls and texts are free, and customers can experience the freedom of paying by the gig or unlimited, and switch between payment options at any time for any line on their account. For complete pricing and availability details, please visit Xfinity Mobile or Comcast Business Mobile.

Nokia claims to be leading the 5G Standalone Core market, with over 80 communication service provider (CSP) customers around the world. In addition, 25 of the top 40 CSPs by revenue rely on Nokia Core network products.

Comcast and Nokia are currently conducting field trials, including tests with Comcast employees. Comcast didn’t reveal the location of its test markets, but the announcement indicates the operator is finally starting to gear up this important piece of its wireless strategy.

This deal comes more than two years after the company bid for and won licensed CBRS spectrum. Comcast also spent $1.7 billion on 600MHz spectrum licenses  in 2017.

Though Comcast has no plans to deploy a national wireless network, it estimates that its current spectrum holdings cover roughly 80% of its homes passed and about 50% of the US population.

Tom Nagel, SVP, Wireless Strategy at Comcast, said: ”We are pleased to be working with Nokia to enable Comcast’s advanced 5G mobile products and services for our customers. Combining Nokia’s industry-leading solutions with Comcast’s targeted network design and new dual SIM technology allows us to create exciting next-generation wireless offerings.”

Fran Heeran, SVP & General Manager of Core Networks, Cloud and Network Services, at Nokia, said: “We are delighted to partner with Comcast and provide Nokia’s advanced 5G Core portfolio to deliver innovative 5G customer offerings securely, at scale, and with advanced operational efficiencies.”


Last fall, Comcast announced it would use Samsung radios, including strand-mounted small cells, for its targeted 5G network. Comcast will deploy separate Samsung radios for the CBRS and 600MHz bands and use its wireline network to help backhaul traffic.

At the time, Comcast confirmed to Light Reading that its wireless network deployment is “using a multi-vendor solution but not within an open RAN framework.”

Comcast’s wireless network evolution is underway as the operator continues to grow a mobile business that launched almost six years ago. Comcast added a record 365,000 mobile lines in Q4 2022, raising its total to 5.31 million.

Meanwhile, Comcast recently introduced a limited-time service convergence bundle for new customers that offers one unlimited mobile line and a 200Mbit/s home broadband service (with the Wi-Fi gateway included) for $50 per month – for a period of 24 months.



Counterpoint Research: Ericsson and Nokia lead in 5G SA Core Network Deployments



U.S. cable commercial revenue to grow 6% in 2022; Comcast Optical Network Architecture; HFC vs Fiber

U.S. cable multi-service operators (MSO’s) now generate more than $20 billion a year in business services revenues as the sector has emerged as one of the most profitable for the industry.  However, cablecos face major challenges in maintaining their growth pace because of the economic meltdown wrought by COVID-19 and the emergence of new all-fiber and wireless competitors.

Cable business service revenues and customer growth each slowed during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, but they are clearly increasing again at the end of 2022.

U.S. cablecos commercial revenue growth is set to hit 6% in 2022, up from just 2% in 2020 and 3% in 2021, Alan Breznick, cable/video practice leader at Light Reading and a Heavy Reading analyst said in opening remarks at Light Reading’s 16th-annual CABLE NEXT-GEN BUSINESS SERVICES DIGITAL SYMPOSIUM, which focused on cable business services.  [The source of that data is CMG/S&P.]

“There are signs of things pointing up again for the [cable] industry,” Breznick told the virtual audience.

U.S. cable is expected to bring in $20.5 billion in total commercial services revenues in 2022. Broken down by segment, small businesses (up to 19 employees), at $14.6 billion, will continue to represent the lion’s share, followed by medium businesses (20-99 employees), at $3.3 billion, and large businesses (100-plus employees), at $2.6 billion.

Commercial customer growth is estimated to reach 5% in 2022, down slightly from 2021 levels, but almost doubling the growth rate seen in 2020, when businesses across the country were hit by pandemic-driven shutdowns and lockdowns. Breznick estimates that US cable has about 5.5 million commercial customers.

Christopher Boone, senior VP of business services and emerging markets at Cable One, acknowledged that the commercial services market is returning to a faster rate of growth. However, businesses – and smaller businesses, particularly – are feeling labor and inflationary pressure as things continue to open up.

“Everything is expensive, including labor, and it’s hard to find [workers],” Boone explained. “For the small business owner, I think it’s pretty tough right now.”

During the earlier phases of the pandemic, Boone said Cable One didn’t emphasize new work-from-home products but instead focused on the broader customer experience. For example, Cable One put some customers on a seasonable pause for the first time, forgave early termination fees, issued credits and, where appropriate, helped customers move to lower-level services.

“We really threw the rulebook out and just said, do what it takes to take care of the customers,” he said. Even if some small businesses fail, the hope is that those entrepreneurs will return and choose Cable One again, remembering that the company did right by them when times were tough.  Moving forward, he said Cable One will stick to its knitting and focus on connectivity rather than look to expand its product line for the business segment.

“I think our product menu needs to look like In-N-Out and not The Cheesecake Factory,” Boone said, noting that Cable One has opted to sit on the sidelines with product categories such as SD-WAN. “We’re pretty cautious in terms of new product launches … We feel that connectivity is really our sweet spot.”


Comcast Business now serves, small, mid-range and  enterprise-level customers with a variety of services including Metro Ethernet, wavelength services and Direct Internet Access.  An important piece of the firm’s broader strategy revolves around a “unified optical network architecture” initiative that enables the MSO to serve a broad range of customer types, including those requiring that services are delivered to multiple locations in multiple markets.

Comcast’s unified optical architecture combines the access and metro optical networks using a set of items: network terminating equipment (NTE), a Wave Integration Shelf (WIS) and OTN (Optical Transport Network – ITU standard) “tails.”

The NTE is a small, optical shelf that today supports 10-Gig and 100-Gig up to a 400-Gig wavelength, and can reside at a single customer site or a data center. The WIS resides in the Comcast headend or hub, co-located with the metro optical line system, and serves as the demarcation point for commercial services. The OTN Tails are the key to connecting the access network to the metro network.

“We needed a way to provide commercial services to customers that were located in the access [network], but needed to reach the metro network to get to one of our routers for Internet access or possibly another segment of the access to connect their locations together,” Stephen Ruppa, senior principal engineer, optical architecture for Comcast’s TPX (technology, product and experience) unit, said this week during his keynote presentation.

The combining/meshing of the access and metro networks enables features such as remote management, performance monitoring data, alarming and a full “end-to-end circuit view,” including the customer sites themselves.   “We use the same hardware, standards, configurations, designs, procurement, processes … in all the networks, regardless of the vendor,” Ruppa said.

And while there was once little need to connect two non-Comcast sites that resided in different areas or to provide connections greater than 10 Gbit/s, customer demands have changed. Ruppa said two products drove that demand and the desire to create the company’s unified optical architecture: wavelength services and high-bandwidth Metro Ethernet.

A modular, simplified, commoditized and easily repeatable architecture enables Comcast Business to “easily offer the next gen of 400-Gig wavelengths and Ethernet services with a very light lift,” he added.


Ed Harstead, Lead Technology Strategist, Chief Technology Office, Fixed Networks, Nokia presented the final keynote.

The panel session “Fighting Fiber with Fiber” was moderated by Breznick with panelists:

  • Christian Nascimento, VP, Product Management & Strategy, Comcast Business
  • Brian Rose, Assistant VP, Product Internet, Networking & Carrier Services. Cox Communications
  • Steve Begg, VP/GM, Business Services, Armstrong Business Solutions
  • Mark Chinn, Partner, CMG Partners
  • Ed Harstead, Lead Technology Strategist, Chief Technology Office, Fixed Networks, Nokia

Decades old hybrid fiber-coax networks (HFC) drive fiber to the node outside of the premises, which is then hooked up using older cable (coaxial) technology. However, due to advances in cable technology such as the latest DOCSIS 4.0 technology, the cable industry has touted its newly developed technological capacity to support multi-gig symmetrical speeds over those hybrid networks. DOCSIS 4.0 currently supports speeds of up to 10 Gigabits (Gbps) per second download and 6 Gbps upload – its predecessor, DOCSIS 3.1, offered only 5 Gbps * 1.5 Gbps.

Christian Nascimento of Comcast stated that hybrid networks that deliver multi-gigabit speeds are “adequate” for smaller enterprises. “This is matter of matching the technology up with…the customer’s needs,” he said, adding that Comcast delivers these services in a “cost-effective way.”

For Cox Communications, the hybrid model is “an ‘and,’ not an ‘or,’” said Brian Rose, the assistant vice president of product internet for the cable company. While Cox may invest more heavily in fiber networks going forward, Rose said it will continue to invest in its cable networks as well. Rose said he welcomes market challenges from insurgent fiber deployers. “Competition is good for customers and the industry overall,” he said. “It pushes people to be better and to push the envelope.”

The panel wasn’t unanimously bullish on older cable technology, however. Ed Harstead of Nokia argued that a widespread transition to fiber is inevitable. “I don’t doubt that mom-and-pop businesses will be perfectly fine on [cable]. But to the extent that you need higher speeds and symmetrical speeds…it’s going to be fiber.”

The cable broadband industry faces an onslaught of criticism from fiber advocates. Organizations like the Fiber Broadband Association say their preferred technology performs better, last longer, and costs less in the long term than the competition. FBA President Gary Bolton has strongly opposed government support for all manner of non-fiber technology, including satellite and wireless.



Cable Providers Back Hybrid Fiber-Coax Networks in Face of Pure Fiber

Comcast to roll out DOCSIS 4.0 and Multi-Gig speeds in 2023; Fiber (not FWA) is the real competitor

Comcast is on a path to deliver 10Gbps connectivity.  Speaking at a Bank of America investor conference on September 8th, Comcast EVP and Deputy CFO and Treasurer Jason Armstrong said the cable network operator will be in the market with DOCSIS 4.0 and offering symmetrical multi-gig broadband in the second half of 2023.  Currently, upload speeds top out at 200 Mbps.

Armstrong said:  “Comcast fiber connectivity has gone from 0% to 40% sort of across our footprint in a fairly linear fashion. And in that time frame, we’ve become America’s number one broadband provider, 32 million subs. I would tell you in the last couple of years through the pandemic, we added three million subscribers in an environment where fiber was actually picking up in terms of the presence in the markets that served against us….Fixed wireless access (FWA) is newer, but longer term, fiber is the real long-term competitor. And it always has been. Our view hasn’t changed. It’s a very viable competitor.”

“And longer term, if you think about it, any secular trend out there, whether it’s AR, VR, Metaverse, low latency gaming, the move from linear to streaming, every one of those is — those are bandwidth talks. That’s going to continue to move up usage profiles across the network. Those are all trends that work in our favor.”

Comcast said rollouts of its 2-gig offering are underway in Colorado Springs, Colorado; Augusta, Georgia; and Panama City Beach, Florida. It added the service will be available in a total of 34 markets by the end of 2022 and to more than 50 million locations across the country by the end of 2025.  Comcast already offers speeds of up to 1.2 Gbps across its entire cable network using DOCSIS 3.1 technology and has been rolling out mid-split upgrades over the past several months in preparation for an update to DOCSIS 4.0. Speeds of up to 6 Gbps are already available to certain Xfinity fiber customers.

Elad Nafshi, EVP and Chief Network Officer at Comcast Cable, told Fierce Telecom the faster speeds will be available on any DOCSIS 3.1 modem, meaning no upgrades will be required. Elad noted the company’s recent launch of a Wi-Fi 6E router which will deliver the best user experience.  According to Nafshi, the mid-split upgrades are just one small piece of the work it has put into enabling the new speed tier. He pointed to its deployment of a virtual cable modem termination system (vCMTS) as well as digital nodes and digital optics as critical pieces of the puzzle which also lay the groundwork for its future DOCSIS 4.0 rollout.

“The way we’re delivering the increased upstream speeds is by, for the very first time, launching DOCSIS 3.1 in the upstream. It’s by relying on the Octave platform that enables us to truly optimize the delivery of those greater upstream speeds by leveraging those new upstream frequencies in order to deliver on this product. Extending additional DOCSIS 3.1 channels, which enable us to deliver the 2-gig speeds as well. There’s a lot of firsts coming to market here,” he explained.



Comcast Deploys Advanced Hollowcore Fiber With Faster Speed, Lower Latency

Comcast today announced what is believed to be the first-ever end-to-end deployment of advanced “hollowcore” fiber optics in the world by an Internet Service Provider (ISP). Hollowcore fibers deliver significantly lower latency than traditional fibers and over time will provide critical performance attributes. These fibers will help power Comcast’s network and support the delivery of multigigabit speeds through 10G b/sec.

Unlike traditional fibers, in which laser light travels over a solid glass core, “hollowcore” fibers are empty inside with air-filled channels. Since light travels nearly 50 percent faster through air than glass, data travels about 150 percent faster with up to 33 percent lower latency through “hollowcore” fiber compared to traditional fiber. The faster speed of light can be used to double the reach for latency critical applications or can speed up the transaction rates by around 47 percent.

For the deployment announced today, Comcast worked with hollowcore fiber cable solutions provider, Lumenisity.

“Hollowcore fiber is a leap forward in how we deliver ultra-fast, ultra-low latency and ultra-reliable services to customers,” said Elad Nafshi, EVP & Chief Network Officer at Comcast Cable. “As we continue to develop and deploy technology to deliver 10G, multigigabit performance to tens of millions of homes, hollowcore fiber will help to ensure that the network powering those experiences is among the most advanced and highest performing in the world.”

“The reality is that light travelling through air is about 50% faster than travelling through glass. The data throughput and the latency is greatly improved when you have a hollowcore fiber … The advantage is you can extend your reach at equal performance,” Nafshi said.  Hollowcore fiber, like traditional fiber, can be used in the access, metro or core network, and is compatible with legacy fiber.

Comcast connected two locations in Philadelphia, which enables network engineers to continue to test and observe the performance and physical compatibility of hollowcore fiber in a real-world deployment. This 40-kilometer hybrid deployment of hollowcore and traditional fiber is believed to be the longest in the world by an Internet provider. Comcast successfully tested bidirectional transmission (upstream and downstream traffic traveling on a single fiber), used coherent and direct-detect systems (allowing for forward and backward technology compatibility), and produced traffic rates ranging from 10 gigabits per second (Gbps) to 400 Gbps all simultaneously on a single strand of hollowcore fiber.

“We are proud to be working with Comcast on the next generation hollowcore fiber, which we believe unlocks exciting new potential for connectivity around the world,” said David Parker, Executive Chairman of Lumenisity.

Hollowcore fiber will help to power the next generation of ultra-low latency technologies to support network virtualization, telemedicine, augmented and virtual reality, and other emerging services. Moving forward, Comcast is exploring opportunities to strategically deploy hollowcore fiber in select core- and access-network deployments. From 2017 to 2021, Comcast added more than 50,000 new route miles of fiber to its network and is actively building more fiber into cities and towns across the United States.

Comcast’s ongoing work to expand and evolve its fiber deployments – including this groundbreaking step forward with hollowcore fiber – helps to power Comcast’s ongoing 10G evolution, which will deliver reliable multigigabit upload and download speeds over the connections already installed in tens of millions of homes and businesses.

An illustration of the air-filled channels utilized in hollowcore fiber.
Source: Comcast


Comcast deployed more than 50,000 new route miles of fiber to its network from 2017 to 2021. The operator isn’t revealing how or when it might commercialize its use of hollowcore fiber, but the operator sees it playing a role for certain apps and use cases, such as telemedicine, AR/VR and network virtualization.

The operator might also use the technology to target new customer segments that are seeking greater throughputs and lower latencies.

From a broader standpoint, hollowfiber could provide a conduit for “10G,” an industry initiative focused on delivering symmetrical 10Gbit/s speeds, low latencies and enhanced security over fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP), hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) and wireless networks.

Citing its 40km connection in Philadelphia, Comcast is billing this as the world’s longest ISP deployment of hollowcore fiber so far.

But Comcast isn’t the only major operator working closely with Lumenisity. Last year, the startup announced BT was trialing its new optical fiber technology at its labs in Adastral Park, Ipswich. That trial involved a 10km-long hollowcore fiber from Lumenisity.

Lumenisity was spun out of the Optoelectronics Research Centre at the University of Southampton in 2017, with an aim to commercialize the development of hollowcore fiber.

In 2020, the startup closed a £7.5 million ($9.77 million) funding round from a group of investors that included BGF and Parkwalk Advisors and existing industrial strategic investors. Lumenisity has raised £12.5 million (US$16.28 million), according to Crunchbase.

Some key application areas Lumenisity has identified for its technology include financial, data center connectivity and connectivity for the separation of remote radio units and baseband units in 5G networks.

About Comcast Corporation:
Comcast Corporation (Nasdaq: CMCSA) is a global media and technology company that connects people to moments that matter. We are principally focused on broadband, aggregation, and streaming with 57 million customer relationships across the United States and Europe. We deliver broadband, wireless, and video through our Xfinity, Comcast Business, and Sky brands; create, distribute, and stream leading entertainment, sports, and news through Universal Filmed Entertainment Group, Universal Studio Group, Sky Studios, the NBC and Telemundo broadcast networks, multiple cable networks, Peacock, NBCUniversal News Group, NBC Sports, Sky News, and Sky Sports; and provide memorable experiences at Universal Parks and Resorts in the United States and Asia. Visit for more information.

Media Contact:
David McGuire 215-422-2732
[email protected]

About Luminosity:

Lumenisity® Limited was formed in early 2017 as a spin-out from the world-renowned Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) at the University of Southampton (UK) to commercialize breakthroughs in the development of hollowcore optical fibre. We have built a team of industry leaders and experts to realise our goal to be the world’s premier high-performance Hollowcore fibre optic cable solutions provider, offering customers reliable, deployable, low latency and high bandwidth connections that unlock new capabilities in communication networks.

Lumenisity is well funded by a consortium of industrial and private investors. We recently relocated our headquarters to Romsey, UK after a substantial investment was made in developing a state of the art manufacturing and testing facility. Our vision is to be the world’s premier high-performance hollowcore fibre optic cable solutions provider offering our customers reliable, deployable, low latency and high bandwidth connections that unlock new capabilities in communication networks.


Comcast 2021 Network Report: Data Traffic Increased Over Historic 2020 Levels; 10G Coming

Comcast broadband subscriber growth slows; Business services and Xfinity Mobile gain

Comcast Business Announces $28 Million Investment to Expand Fiber Broadband Network in Eastern U.S.

Comcast Earnings Report: Record Broadband Growth; 3 Core Strategy Tenets; Wireless Expansion


Comcast 2021 Network Report: Data Traffic Increased Over Historic 2020 Levels; 10G Coming

After hitting historic peaks in 2020, traffic on the Comcast network grew again in 2021, according to the Comcast 2021 Network Report, released today. Key takeaways:

  • In 2021 alone, Comcast invested more than $4.2 billion to strengthen, expand and evolve the network – more than any previous year.
  • Traffic patterns remained highly asymmetrical, as peak downstream traffic grew 2x faster than upstream traffic, more closely mirroring pre-pandemic trends.
  • In 2021, downstream traffic rose 11% over 2020 levels, while peak upstream traffic rose just 5%. By comparison, 2020 network traffic levels spiked considerably – peak downstream traffic rose 38% while upstream traffic surged 56%
  • Similar to last year, entertainment activities dominated peak network traffic, with video streaming accounting for 71 percent of downstream traffic.

“Over the past two years, our network has been a powerful and reliable pillar for our customers as they’ve navigated dramatic changes in how we live, learn, play and work,” said Charlie Herrin, President of Technology, Product, Experience at Comcast Cable. “The outstanding performance of the network throughout this time is a testament to our commitment to strategic investment, unceasing innovation, and the incredible talent and dedication of our technology teams across the country.”

Regarding traffic content, video streaming, at 71%, dominated peak network traffic on Comcast’s network in 2021, compared to 11% for gaming apps, 9% for web browsing and 2% for software updates.

2021 Network Traffic:

Comcast increased speeds for its most popular Xfinity speed tiers in 2021, including increasing gig speeds to 1.2 gigabits-per-second In 2021 alone, Comcast invested more than $4.2 billion to strengthen, expand and evolve the network – more than any previous year.


In addition to smart software and virtualization technologies that increase performance and reliability, Comcast took major steps in 2021 toward the next phase of network evolution. 10G technology will allow Comcast to deliver multi-gigabit upload and download speeds over the connections already in tens of millions of American homes. In 2021, Comcast completed successful tests of key technologies required to deliver 10G, including a world-first demonstration of a complete 10G connection from network to modem.

“Network investment is important, but the network architects and software engineers across Comcast are also innovating at the speed of software,” said Elad Nafshi, EVP & Chief Network Officer at Comcast Cable. “Our colleagues leading these innovations are creating the future for our customers.”

“We certainly haven’t had time to sit still during the past two years, but thanks to billions of investment, continuous innovation, and most importantly the incredible team we have working on the network at every level, we have stayed well ahead of demand, which is really borne out by our performance delivering above-advertised speeds to customers throughout the pandemic,” Nafshi said via email in response to questions from Light Reading.

Xfinity Gigabit Pro is a targeted, residential fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) service that was recently upgraded to deliver symmetrical speeds of 3 Gbit/s. The cable operator also offers up to 1.2Gbit/s downstream and 35Mbit/s upstream on its DOCSIS 3.1 network.

“We’re always building our network in anticipation of whatever our customers may need in the future, so while traffic today remains heavily asymmetrical – with downstream accounting for 14.5x as much volume as upstream in the last six months of 2021 – we continue to be really excited about the multi-gig symmetrical capacity we are developing for our HFC plant, because it offers a unique path to provide those experiences to customers at scale,” Nafshi explained.

Comcast and other cable operators are now starting to focus on DOCSIS 4.0, a new platform for hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) networks that can deliver up to 10Gbit/s downstream and 6Gbit/s upstream. Recent Comcast tests have generated symmetrical speeds of 4 Gbit/s. Comcast has not announced when it expects DOCSIS 4.0-based services to be ready for prime time.


Comcast broadband subscriber growth slows; Business services and Xfinity Mobile gain

The pace of broadband subscriber growth at Comcast slowed to 300,000 in Q3 2021.  The +300,000 net adds were in line with analyst expectations of +296,000.  But those gains were down from 633,000 adds in the year-ago quarter fueled by the COVID-19 pandemic, and off from the 379,000 adds in the pre-pandemic period of Q3 2019. Comcast ended the quarter with 31.68 million broadband subs, which accounted for 52.2% penetration of homes and businesses passed. Broadband revenues climbed 11.6%, to $5.8 billion.

On today’s earnings call, CEO Brian Roberts made no apologies.  He said:

“Our Cable division continues to be a standout delivering over 7% revenue growth and the fifth consecutive quarter of double-digit EBITDA growth of 10%, fueled by our broadband business, which generated 300,000 net additions and contributed to a very healthy 255,000 net new customer relationships. Business services has emerged from the pandemic and was also a key driver of our results and we believe this momentum will continue.”

“Our success comes from our network advantage, innovative products and world-class operational capabilities, which enable us to provide an unparalleled experience. Just like in residential, we are proactively responding to the needs of our commercial customers and offering personalized solutions.”

Dave Watson, CEO of Comcast’s cable unit, attributed the broadband slowdown to a decrease in overall new connects across the company’s footprint, creating fewer opportunities for “jump balls” against broadband competitors. “However, broadband subscriber churn remains at historic lows certainly for quarter three,” he said.  Watson added full year 2021 net additions are expected to come in around 2019 levels. Comcast had 1.4 million broadband net additions in 2019 and thus far in 2021 has added 1.115 million, meaning it would need to add 285,000 broadband subscribers in Q4 to hit its target.

“We haven’t changed our view on the long-term trajectory of the connectivity business,” Watson said on today’s earnings call, noting that Comcast has added 1.1 million broadband subs through the first three quarters of 2021. “I’m just as confident and optimistic in the prospects in this business as I’ve ever been … The runway [for broadband subscriber growth] is still absolutely there.”

Capital expenditures for the Cable division fell 5.4% in the quarter to $1.7 billion, as an uptick in spending on line extensions and scalable infrastructure failed to fully offset decreased investment in customer premise equipment.

3rd Quarter 2021 Highlights:

  • Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA Increased 18.1% to $9.0 Billion; Adjusted EPS Increased 33.8% to $0.87; Generated Free Cash Flow of $3.2 Billion
  • Returned $2.7 Billion to Shareholders Through a Combination of $1.5 Billion in Share Repurchases and $1.2 Billion in Dividend Payments
  • Cable Communications Total Customer Relationship Net Additions Were 255,000; Total Broadband Customer Net Additions Were 300,000
  • Cable Communications Adjusted EBITDA Increased 10.3% and Adjusted EBITDA per Customer Relationship Increased 5.3%
  • Cable Communications Wireless Customer Line Net Additions Were 285,000, the Best Quarterly Result Since Launch in 2017
  • NBCUniversal Adjusted EBITDA Increased 48.2% to $1.3 Billion, Including Peacock Losses
  • Theme Parks Delivered Its Most Profitable Quarter Since the First Quarter of 2020, Driven by Universal Orlando; Celebrated the Grand Opening of Universal Beijing Resort on September 20th
  • Sky Adjusted EBITDA Increased 88.8% to $971 Million; On a Constant Currency Basis, Adjusted EBITDA Increased 76.2%

Business services did very well, as revenues there rose 8.7%, to $2.2 billion. Comcast Business added about 18,000 new customers in Q3, and has added 72,000 business customers over the past year.  “Business services have emerged from the pandemic,” Roberts said.

Roberts said the midsized and enterprise segments remain “underpenetrated” categories for Comcast Business. But they also represent areas the company will pursue more aggressively following the recent acquisition of SD-WAN and cloud platform specialist Masergy. Roberts added:

“While small business has led our growth for the last decade. We are still significantly underpenetrated in the mid-market and enterprise segments. We see a lot of potential to take share in our large addressable market, which just got even bigger post our recent acquisition of Masergy, which builds on our strong offering of technology solutions. Masergy has become a leading provider to companies worldwide and unlocks a customer segment that we don’t have today, particularly US-based organizations with multi-site global operations.”

Mobility is now rapidly becoming a major part of the Comcast story, while the company continues to lose pay video subscribers.  Xfinity Mobile (MVNO from Verizon Wireless) reached a quarterly record of 285,000 net new subscribers in the third quarter.

  • Roberts noted that Xfinity Mobile has achieved a penetration of about 6% of the company’s broadband base of nearly 32 million.
  • Watson said Comcast will continue to tie mobile to its core broadband product, but expects Xfinity Mobile to pick up the pace.  “We haven’t changed the strategic imperative behind mobile. But most certainly things have accelerated. Our goal … is to go faster, and to leverage mobile completely in everything that we do.”

Analyst Craig Moffett wrote in a note to clients (we highly recommend his service):

Q3 saw Comcast report a positive EBITDA contribution from Mobility for the third straight
quarter, with a swing of more than $100M from the $50M loss a year ago (Exhibit 3).
That Comcast has been able to achieve profitability even before meaningful traffic offload onto CBRS (likely still at least a year away) is significant in a number of ways. Yes, some additional EBITDA is always nice, particularly when compared to the losses of a year and two years ago. But more importantly, Comcast’s profitability demonstrates that they have the headroom to use wireless to defend broadband from incursions from TelCo fiber overbuilds, as we argued in Convergence Apocalypse? – October 14, 2021… and still contribute to overall profitability.